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2018 Vol.40 Issue.1,
Published 2018-02-25

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2018 Vol. 40 (1): 0-0 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF5796KB] ( 146 )
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2018 Vol. 40 (1): 0-0 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1574KB] ( 145 )
1 What glacier is the “ultra-maritime glacier”? A discussion with Professor Jing Cairui
LI Jijun, ZHOU Shangzhe
Shi Yafeng and Xie Zichu have classified the contemporary glaciers of China into ultra-continental glacier, sub-continental glacier and maritime glacier. This classification has been widely accepted and applied because it accords with the essential characteristics of Chinese glaciers. Recently, Professor Jing Cairui proposes a new term, "ultra-maritime glacier", to support the hypothesis of glaciations of the East China, meaning that even if the regular glaciers were not present on the middle-lower mountains in East China during Quaternary, there would existed a special kind of glaciers that were more warm and more humid than maritime glaciers. It is difficult to think such glacier is present in the world, because the term "maritime glaciers" contains all the glaciers with 0℃ temperate ice and it is impossible for water to crystallize into glacial ice under the temperature higher than 0℃ even more precipitation. So the concept "ultra-maritime glacier" is invalid. In addition, a lot of studies on Quaternary environment have indicated that in ice ages, continental shelf exposed extensively, the winter monsoon was dominant forced by the intensified Siberia-Mongolia high pressure. So the climate shifted to drier and the maritime climate was weakened during ice ages in the East China.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 1-6 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF398KB] ( 151 )
7 Study on the differences of thermal-moisture dynamics in the active layer of permafrost in different alpine ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau
JIANG Guanli, WU Qingbai, ZHANG Zhongqiong
Based on the observation within the active layer beneath different alpine ecosystems, including alpine grassland, alpine swamp meadow and alpine meadow, in Beiluhe area on the Tibetan Plateau, the thermal-moisture dynamics were studied. The results show that the differences are evident about the aspects such as active layer depth, initial times and duration of freeze and thaw, and spatial moisture distribution. Beneath alpine grassland, the active layer has deepest depth, earliest initial thawing and the longest duration of thawing among the all three types of ecosystems, following by that beneath alpine swamp meadow and then by alpine grassland. Beneath the alpine grassland water content within the active layer increases from the top to the bottom, most of the water concentrates in the middle lower part. Beneath alpine swamp meadow water content is relatively even. Beneath alpine swamp meadow water content gradually reduces from top to bottom, and the closer to surface the larger the soil moisture content is. Further analysis of the monitoring data finds that there are obvious differences in ground surface temperature and air temperature, organic material content, n-factor and the statistical characteristics of standard deviation on near surface temperature among various alpine ecosystems. The study indicates that the thermal-moisture dynamics are closely related to the alpine ecosystem which affects the near surface energy fluxes and makes difference in the earth-atmosphere heat exchange and then changes the temperature and moisture characteristics of the active layer.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 7-17 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF4737KB] ( 121 )
18 Response of maximum seasonally frozen depth and duration of soil frozen to climate change in Chaoyang Prefecture of Liaoning Province
ZHANG Wei, JI Ran
Using the data of the maximum seasonally frozen depth, the longest frozen duration and the start and end days of the longest continuous freezing time from the meteorological stations in Chaoyang Prefecture of Liaoning Province from 1960 through 2015, the interannual change characteristics of permafrost in the prefecture were analyzed,, together with the wavelet analysis in this paper, and further discussed the influence factors on the seasonally frozen ground development in the prefecture. The results show that there have been four cycles of the maximum frozen depth, i.e., 23~32 a, 16~22 a, 10~15 a and 4~9 a, respectively. There was a shift of the frozen ground depth in the early 1990s, showing a winter temperature warming in the prefecture since the early 1990s. According to correlation analysis between the temperature and frozen ground depth and frozen duration of seasonally frozen soil, it can be concluded that climate warming has a significant impact on the seasonally frozen in the prefecture. Meanwhile, the average temperature in winter and the lowest temperature in winter are closely related to the seasonally frozen depth in the prefecture. The analysis also indicates that the daily range of temperature in winter particularly affects the seasonally frozen depth. The lowest temperature in winter has closely related with the main frozen duration; the thermal factor that affects the end day of the main frozen period is the average maximum temperature in winteon
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 18-25 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2327KB] ( 102 )
26 Study of penetration depth for the SRTM C-band DEM in the glacier area over the High Mountain Asia
CHEN An'an, LI Zhen, HE Jianqiao, GUO Zhongming, ZHANG Wei
The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM is the most valuable resources to evaluate glacier volume change. The penetration depth of SRTM C-band digital elevation model (DEM) in different glacial regions over the High Mountain Asia (HMA) was calculated and compared with the SRTM X-band DEM. The results showed that the spatial patterns of SRTMC DEMs were various, with the maximum penetration depth of (5.3±2.1) m in the Zangser Kangri and the minimum depth of (0.8±0.6) m in the central Tianshan Mountains and western Nyainqentanglha Range. The spatial distribution of penetration depth gradually decreases and then increases from the marginal areas of HMA to the inner Tibetan Plateau with a maximum in Qiangtang Plateau. It is mainly due to the difference in spatial patterns of temperature and precipitation. Additionally, the coverage condition of SRTM X-band and the sampling number of glaciers might cause the uncertainties of penetration depth calculation in different study areas.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 26-37 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2657KB] ( 334 )
38 Ice thickness sounded by ground penetrating radar on the Meikuang Glacier in the Eastern Kunlun Mountains
LI Yanan, LI Zhen, WANG Ninglian
Glacier is an important surface water resources in Northwest China. However, due to lack of measured glacier ice thickness data, the ice reserve estimation of glacier has varying degree of indeterminacy. In May of 2015, ice thickness of the Meikuang Glacier on the Eastern Kunlun Mountains was sounded by a pulse EKKO PRO Ground Penetrating Radar system (with a 100 MHz antenna), with five short transversal profiles and one long longitudinal profile. Based on the GPR data, GPS position of the sounding point, SRTM DEM data (30 meters) and Landsat8 OLI image in 2015, the Meikuang Glacier was seperated a sounded area from the whole glacier field. Ice thickness contour map was drawn by Ordinary Kriging method and ice reserve was calculated by integration of thickness and boundary distribution data under the support of GIS technology. The sounding showed that the maximum thickness was 87 meters at 4 952 meters elevation, near to the main flow line. It was found that in 2015 the glacierized area, average thickness and total ice reserve of the glacier was 0.95 km2, 25.77 meters and 0.0242 km3, respectively. Based on raster map of the glacier surface and ice thickness, the topography of glacier bed was obtained. The results show that the glacier is wide in the upper part and narrow along the valley, and the glacier bed is complex. In the area with larger thickness, the topography has near V-shape, showing the morphological characteristics of cirque glacier.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 38-46 [Abstract] ( 14 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF3780KB] ( 132 )
47 Dynamic change and cause analysis of Salt Lake area in Hoh Xil on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during 1976-2017
DU Yu'e, LIU Baokang, HE Weiguo, DUAN Shuiqiang, HOU Fujiang, WANG Zongli
Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau are sensitive indicators of global climate change. In the last 55 years, the climate of the Hoh Xil region showed a significant warm and wet trend, in which the temperature rise rate was 0.33℃·(10a)-1 (R=0.746, P<0.01), and the increasing rate of precipitation was 23.4 mm·(10a)-1 (R=0.422, P<0.01). Over the past 40 years, the area of salt lake has shown an increasing trend. Among them, the area of Salt Lake before dike burst increased by 1.63 km2· a-1 from 1976 to 2011, and after dike burst it continued to expand at the rate of 8.51 km2·a-1. On the whole, in the past 40 years, the area of Salt Lake has experienced three stages:slowly increasing (1976-2011)→sharply increasing (2012-2013)→steadily increasing (2014-2017). The main reason for the early expansion of the Salt Lake area was the warm and wet of the climate in the Hoh Xil region. The reason for the sharp increase in the area in the later period was due to the dike burst of the Zonag Lake in the upper branches of the Salt Lake on September 15, 2011, resulting in three lakes downstream (Lake Kosei, Lake Dinard Noir), and Salt Lake are connected in a row; glacial and frozen water melting may be the cause of the expansion of the Hoh Xil Salt Lake area, but it is not the main reason. In the later period, the area of Saline Lake will also show a steady increase trend. The expansion of the Salt Lake area has led to the desalinization of Salt Lake, and the area where the surrounding grassland has been submerged and destroyed continues to expand. Which not only damages the ecological environment surrounding grassland, but may also have an adverse effects on major engineering facilities around Hoh Xil. In view of the fact that the area of Salt Lake will continue to increase in the future, it will adversely affect the major engineering facilities around it. Therefore, long-term and continuous tracking and observation of Salt Lake Lake using multi-source satellite data will remain the focus of relevant government departments.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 47-54 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2307KB] ( 100 )
55 Characteristics and engineering significance of frost heaving in subgrade of Harbin-Dalian high-speed railway
LI Xianming, NIU Fujun, LIU Hua, LI Anyuan, NIU Yonghong, XU Jian, LIN Zhanju
The frost heaving of subgrade is an important index to evaluate the safety of high-speed railway in cold regions, which also influence the rail surface deformation coordination and the fastening system's safety. Considering the monitoring results of frost heaving on the shoulder of Harbin-Dalian Railway Passenger Dedicated Line in the first two freezing-thawing cycles after operation, it is found that the current evaluating and predicting system has a shortcoming in estimating the frost heaving values. The system does not consider the influence of subgrade settlement to the frost heaving estimation. In this paper, the frost heaving characteristics in subgrade are discussed and a method based on the observation results is put forwards. The results show that the monitored value of frost heaving is lower than the actual value; therefore it is dangerous to apply such a system to evaluate the long-term frost heaving. At the same time, frost heaving of the shoulder does not represent the deformation of the subgrade. For long-term prediction and evaluation of the frost heaving of a high-speed railway subgrade, it is necessary to analyze the monitored data under the actual engineering conditions, so that to improve the reliability of predicting seasonal deformation.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 55-61 [Abstract] ( 13 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF3372KB] ( 126 )
62 Experimental study of the influence of freezing-thawing cycles on physical and mechanical properties of Qinghai-Tibet red clay
FANG Jianhong, CHEN Xin, XU Anhua, ZHANG Ze
Red clay was taken as research object, specimens from which had gone through different numbers of freezing-thawing cycles within a closed system. The changes of particle size composition and physical-mechanical properties of red clay under different freezing-thawing cycles were studied. The results showed that the specimens of powder group and clay group were significantly affected by the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The specimens with red clay particle size of less than 0.001 mm and particle size in the range of 0.01-0.05 mm had enriched in the first 10 cycles. After 10 cycles of freezing-thawing, the content of soil particles with particle size range from 0.002 mm to 0.005 mm had increased obviously with the increase of the cycles, and the content of soil particles with particle size range from 0.01 mm to 0.05 mm had decreased obviously. Soil particle content in the other particle size range had not affected by the number of the cycles nearly. The liquid and plastic limits of the red clay had increased with the increase of the number of the cycles. The effect of freezing-thawing cycles on the equivalent cohesive strength of red clay was more obvious. The effect of freezing-thawing cycles on the equivalent cohesive strength of red clay had varied greatly within the first 10 cycles. The new roadbed with red clay should consider the effect of additional settlement caused by freezing-thawing cycles. It is suggested that the long-term equivalent cohesive strength of red clay should predict by equation of Vyalov or Wu.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 62-69 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1972KB] ( 130 )
70 Stress analysis of pipelines subjected to frost heave based on the theory of elastic foundation beam
HUANG Long, SHENG Yu, HU Xiaoying, WANG Shengting, HUANG Xubin, HE Binbin
When the buried pipelines crossing the permafrost regions suffering differential frost heave, the buckling deformation will occur, bringing potential safety problems to the pipelines. Thus, study on the influence of frost heaving on the pipes is an urgent affairs. In this paper, based on the theory of elastic foundation beam, a pipe-soil model subjected to frost heave is built. Stress distribution of a pipeline subjected to frost heave and other damages is revealed. The relationship between properties of permafrost foundation and temperature is also analyzed. The analyzed properties include elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and foundation coefficient. The stress peak distribution has simultaneously compared under various specific conditions, such as different foundation coefficients, frost-heave amount, pipe diameter and pipe wall thickness, temperature difference and overlying-soil thickness. The results show that:1) there is a maximum stress of pipeline in junctions between the transition zone and the frost-heaving zone or the non frost-heaving zone, and varied factors have obvious influences on the stress at the junctions of pipeline; 2) the greater the foundation coefficient value is, the greater the difference frost-heaving amount is; the larger the diameter, the bigger the temperature difference, and the greater maximum-stress at the junction of pipeline; the thicker the pipe wall, the smaller the stress peak at the junction of pipeline; 3) the bending stress of pipeline caused by frost heaving will decrease with the increase of overlying-soil thickness. It means that it will reduce the pipeline stress caused by frost heaving and restrict the pipeline deformation by deepening the overlying soil.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 70-78 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF3116KB] ( 98 )
79 Experimental study on dynamic compressive mechanical properties of sandstone with low temperature and natural water content
ZHANG Huan, PING Qi, WU Mingjing
In order to study the dynamic mechanical properties of sandstone, impact compression tests were performed on low temperature and natural water content sandstone specimens under 6 kinds of loading rate by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus. The results show that the dynamic compressive strength and the elastic modulus of the sandstone at -10℃ is greater than that at -15℃, the dynamic compressive strength increases in a power function with the strain rate. The dynamic elastic modulus is positively related to the strain rate and in a polynomial function both at -10℃ and -15℃. The dynamic stress-strain curve is able to divide into 4 stages and the strain range in the strain softening stage increases with the increase of strain rate. Failure modes of sandstone specimens range from tensile failure modes in block splitting structure and lamellar spallation structure to shear failure modes in cone structure until to crushing failure modes in granular structure with the increase of strain rate.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 79-85 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2126KB] ( 86 )
86 Effects of freezing-thawing cycles on mechanical properties of loess solidified by sodium silicate
HOU Xin, MA Wei, LI Guoyu, ZHOU Zhiwei, HUANG Yongting
As a reinforcement reagent, sodium silicate is often used in the solidification of collapsible loess. In seasonally frozen soil region, the freezing-thawing cycles affect the structure of solidified loess and lead to the change of its mechanical properties. Taking Lanzhou loess as the object of study, the mercury intrusion porosimetry and mechanical tests are carried out respectively before and after freezing-thawing cycles on the loess solidified with 3% sodium silicate. The results showed that freezing-thawing cycles increased the average pore diameter in loess and reduced the content of micropores, resulting in cracks in samples. On the other hand, the Na+ produced by the reaction of sodium silicate migrated to the surface of fractures and samples under the moisture gradient, and caused recrystallization. The above effects destroy the cementation between the soil particles and eventually deteriorated the mechanical properties of the solidified loess substantially. The data showed that with the increase of freezing-thawing cycles, the unconfined compressive strength of sodium silicate solidified loess reduced, the energy consumption, and resilience modulus of hysteresis loops in the process of uniaxial loading and unloading showed a downward trend. After 20 freezing-thawing cycles, the strength decreases by as much as 85.33%, and the average value of energy consumption and the resilience modulus are 8.68% and 20.70% of the values in the initial state respectively. It means that the vibration and stiffness of the solidified loess are greatly deteriorated. For saline loess, sodium silicate should be used with caution in seasonally frozen soil region.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 86-93 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2025KB] ( 133 )
94 Experimental study on freezing of unsaturated coarse-grained soils
GAO Jianqiang, BAI Ruiqiang, MA Qinguo
According to the grading standards of subgrade fillings in practical engineering, some test specimens were made for one-side freezing experiments, under the consideration of impervious cover and no-pressure water supply, and for studying the influence of properties of soils, temperature gradients and boundaries on the frost susceptibility of unsaturated coarse-grained soil. The tests results showed that the properties of soils, temperature gradients and boundaries have significant influence on the frost susceptibility of coarse-grained soils. The amount of frost heaving of specimen with mixed fines is largest, following by the specimens with clay loess, and the specimens with silty clay is the minimum. The water contents in the upper position and freezing front of specimen, as well as the external water supply, have the same effect. The larger the temperature gradient, the bigger the frost heaving of specimen, resulting in more water accumulated at the top of the specimen. But the water content is less changing at the freezing front, and the external water supply is smaller. The lower the temperature boundary at the cold end, the smaller the frost heaving. In addition, the water content in the upper position decreases and the external water supply increases. As the water content in the upper position less, the external water supply will increase.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 94-101 [Abstract] ( 13 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2035KB] ( 139 )
102 Experimental study on the effects of freeze-thaw cycles on similar materials with different porosity
WANG Yongyan, LIU Xueqing, SU Chuanqi, ZHANG Yubiao, WEI Jian
Based on the similarity theory of model test in geomechanics, water, gypsum, cement, river sand were mixed in a certain proportion to make similar model. The porosity of the similar model changed with the particle size of the river sand. Five similar shale materials with different porosities were produced and the porosity of similar shale materials was measured by saturation method. The five kinds of similar shale materials were subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. The uniaxial compression tests and triaxial compression tests were performed on the similar shale materials without freeze-thaw cycles and with freeze-thaw cycles. The experimental research shows that after freeze-thaw cycles, the uniaxial compressive strength, triaxial compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, cohesion and internal friction angle of the similar shale materials have reduced; the porosity and Poisson's ratio have increased to some extent compared with those before freeze-thaw cycles. With the increase of porosity, the influence of freeze-thaw cycles on shale similar materials increases first and then decreases. When the porosity is 9.4%~13.6%, the similar shale materials are most affected by freeze-thaw cycles. When the porosity is 5.8%~9.4%, the influence of the freeze-thaw cycles on shale similar materials increases with porosity. When the porosity is 13.9%~19.1%, the influence of freeze-thaw cycles on shale similar materials decreases with the increase of porosity. The research results can provide scientific basis for the construction of geotechnical engineering and disaster reduction in western cold regions.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 102-109 [Abstract] ( 15 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1013KB] ( 79 )
110 Experimental study of mechanical properties of cement soil of different curing time subjected to freezing-thawing cycles
CUI Honghuan, PEI Guolu, YAO Shijun, WANG Gaoyong, ZHANG Zhiguo
The uniaxial compressive strength tests of cement modified soil with different curing timeunder different freezing-thawing cycles were carried out,according to various seasonal frozen soil regions. The effects of curing time and freezing-thawing cycles on compressive strength, mass loss rate and deformation modulus E50 were investigated. At the curing time of 28 days, under freezing-thawing cycles and hydration reaction of cement are combined to make the structure remodeling. As a result, the compressive strengths with three dosages decrease first and then increase with the increase of the number of freezing-thawing cycles; the mass loss rate, always less than 0,decrease first and then increase; the data of deformation modulus E50 is convergent with the increase of freezing-thawing cycles. When the admixtureis 10%, it shows a decreasing trend, and when the admixtureis 6%, it shows an increasing trend. That is, E50 is decreasing at 10%, and E50 is increasing at 6%. At the curing time of 90 days, the hydration reaction isbasically completed and the structure isnearly stable. Thus freezing-thawing cycles will cause irreparable damage, resulting in compressive strength decreasing with the increase of freezing-thawing cycles; when the admixtureis 6%, the mass loss rate gradually increases and becomes more than 0 with a generally divergent E50.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 110-115 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1534KB] ( 96 )
116 Review of status and progress of the study in thermal conductivity of frozen soil
HE Ruixia, JIN Huijun, ZHAO Shuping, DENG Yousheng
Thermal conductivity of frozen soil is not only one of the crucial thermal parameters in determining the changes in soil temperature and heat fluxes, but also a fundamental physical parameter for studying the couple transport of heat, water and solute in the land surface. In this paper, an overview of advance in frozen soil thermal conductivity is made, the measuring methods of thermal conductivity are listed, the influencing factors and variations of thermal properties of soil are reviewed, and the parametric processes, the advantages and disadvantages of various models are also analyzed. The measuring methods of the thermal conductivity of frozen soil can be divided into two types:steady-state technique and the unsteady-state technique. Existing studies indicate that soil texture, temperature, water (ice) content, porosity and soil organic matter are the main influencing factors, and their variations have been studied with considerable effort. However, researches on the thermal conductivity effects of unfrozen water content, soil skeleton composition and permafrost structures are not enough. In this paper, the models of soil thermal conductivity at home and abroad were compared and analyzed. It is believed that the models employed in simulating soil thermal conductivity have entered their mature stage. However, the existing thermal conductivity computation models applied in frozen soil regions have certain limitations, owing to their mainly based on the premise of one kind or several kinds of soil and only consideration of the influence of some local factors. Considering the soil is significantly influenced by the freeze-thaw cycle and the complexity of internal process of heat and water transfer in permafrost regions, the model simulation of the thermal conductivity in permafrost regions still needs further to be improved.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 116-126 [Abstract] ( 13 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF490KB] ( 137 )
127 Characteristics of runoff variation and its response to climate change of Qingshuihe River and Alagou River watersheds in southern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains
LI Yuping, HAN Tianding, SHEN Yongping, PU Hongzheng
Runoff in Xinjiang mainly comes from snow melt water and precipitation in the mountain regions. With global warming, glaciers and snow-capped mountains have been shrinking, which directly impact the mountain runoff and surrounding ecosystem. Due to the difference in geographical environment, the response of runoff to climate change is different from place to place in the south slopes of the Tianshan Mountains. Based on hydrological data (1956-2012) of the Qingshuihe River and Alagou River, the trend, mutation, variation period of the runoff and its response to climate change in the study watershed were analyzed using the methods of Mann-Kendall method and crossover wavelet transform. The results are as followed. Seasonal distribution of runoff is not uniform, with summer runoff accounting for more than half of the annual runoff in the Qingshuihe River and Alagou Rive. The annual runoff has been increasing significantly. The hydrological process had a turning point in 1988. After 1988, runoff in the Qingshuihe River has been in abundance state and the runoff in the Alagou River has increased significantly too, especially in 1996, owing to superposition of more precipitation and higher temperature. The annual runoff shows periodic change with various time scales, of which the main period is more than 32-year, and the small periods are 2-year or 8-year. There are some regional differences in response degree of mountain runoff to precipitation and temperature in the Qingshuihe River and Alagou River. The mountain runoff of the Qingshuihe River is more sensitive to precipitation change than that of Alagou River. The annual runoff variation of the Alagou River is controlled by temperature. The Alagou River runoff exhibits sensitivity to temperature higher than that in the Qingshuihe River. Owing to glacial runoff regulation and permafrost degradation, annual runoff process in the Alagou River shows a lag more than that in the Qingshuihe River.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 127-135 [Abstract] ( 13 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF4584KB] ( 117 )
136 Response of runoff to climate change and human activity in the upper reaches of the Bayin River, Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province
WEN Guangchao, WANG Wenke, DUAN Lei, LI Yiming, ZHAO Jiahui
Based on the measured monthly runoff and meteorological data in the upper reaches of the Bayin River basin during the period of 1959-2013, by using the methods of Mann-Kendall trend test, R/S analysis and the change rate of accumulation slope, monthly and annual variations of runoff, various trends and cycles were analyzed, the contribution rates of climate change and human activity on the run off were calculated. The results show that annual runoff had showed a significant increase trend from 1959 to 2013, with an increasing rate of 0.2×108 m3·(10a)-1 and a Hurst index of 0.78, the period of wet/normal/dry year was about 20 years, the river had experienced its high water period since the beginning of 21st century; the major periods of decadal runoff variation was 21-22 years, and the primary period of annual runoff variation was 10-11 years. Asymmetrical distribution feature of runoff within the year had displayed so that the runoff from June to November had accounted for 64.49% of the total, showing a single peak distribution, first increasing and then decreasing, the maximum monthly runoff had postponed since the beginning of the 21st century, with the annual distribution more concentrated; an abrupt change of runoff occurred in 2001; in the upstream of the Bayin River, climate change played dominant role, following by human activity, with the contribution ratio to runoff of 83.06% and 16.94%, respectively. This study could be useful for future water resource development and utilization and ecological environment protection in the Bayin River basin.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 136-144 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2433KB] ( 114 )
145 Water saving strategy in inland river basin of Hexi Corridor in Gansu Province: conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater
QU Wei, LI Zhentao, Eefje AARNOUDSE, TAN Yanmei, ZHAO Yifang
Over the past 20 years, the water resources management in the Hexi Corridor region has undergone various institutional reforms, promoting the conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater in different degrees. However, the differentiation of water management efficiency in the three inland river basins in the Hexi Corridor region has become more and more obvious due to the differences in institutional settings and restriction of authority and reform objectives. Compared with the Shiyang River basin, the regulatory regimes and management practices in the Heihe River basin and Shule River basin are very chaotic. The lack of effective conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater is the key issue. This paper summarized the experiences and lessons of agricultural irrigation water management by combing the establishment of three water resources management agencies and their authority and management modes, and compared both advantages and disadvantages of the conjunctive management measures of surface water and groundwater in practice. Further explorations of the practical significance and realization path of the conjunctive management of river basins have been made, and the universal management of water resources in the inland river basins is discussed, in order to guarantee the smooth implementation of the water-saving strategy in the inland river basins. The practical experiences of the past 10 years have shown that conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water is the most effective way to improve the utilization efficiency of water resources and promote the sustainable utilization of water resources in inland river basins, and is the unique way to realize the green development of regional ecological environment.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 145-155 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1189KB] ( 96 )
156 Characteristics of culturable bacteria diversity among different permafrost types in the upstream regions of the Shule River basin, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
ZHANG Baogui, LIU Xiaojiao, LIU Min, ZHANG Wei, ZHANG Gaosen, WU Xiukun, CHEN Tuo, LIU Guangxiu
Owing to climate change and human activities, significant degradation of permafrost has happened in the upstream regions of the Shule River Basin, such as the increasing depth of the active layer and vegetation degradation. However, little is known about the consequent effects of permafrost degradation to the soil microbes. In this study, we analyzed the culturable bacterial diversity of 12 permafrost-affected soil samples from four principal permafrost types, sub-stable permafrost (SSP), transition permafrost (TP), unstable permafrost (UP) and extremely unstable permafrost (EUP) in different seasons, to investigate the effects of soil properties on bacterial community structure during the process of permafrost degradation. The results showed that the genera Arthrobacter and Micrococcus were the dominant bacteria in the upstream region of the Shule River. The genus Arthrobacter comprised 15.6%~50.1% and the genus Micrococcus comprised 7.5%~48.5% of the total culturable bacteria, and these percentages decreased and increased during the process of permafrost degradation, respectively. Based on 16S rDNA gene sequences and the phylogenetic tree, the culturable bacteria in the study area belonged to 27genera, and fell into five phylogenetic groups:α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroides, among which Actinobacteria was the dominate phylum. Such a culturable bacterial community structure was similar with previous studies of permafrost ecosystems. Bacterial diversity characteristics were different among different permafrost types, these results indicated that there existed huge environmental heterogeneity between different permafrost during the process of reverse vegetation succession along with permafrost degradation, and this heterogeneity has further affected the species diversity. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil moisture, soil total nitrogen and organic carbon were important factors that affecting the culturable bacterial diversity. Hence, we can conclude that permafrost degradation, caused by global warming, affects soil properties and consequently drives changes in the soil bacterial diversity. The results provide a data base for the comprehensive evaluation of the ecological environment of different types of permafrost in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 156-165 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2553KB] ( 91 )
166 Diel variation of Populus euphratica sap flow and its correlation with meteorological factors
Maierdang Keyimu, Vmüt Halik, Gulibiya Wumaier, Abdugheni Abliz
Six sample trees of Populus euphratica Oliv. with different vitality and DBH were chosen from the National Populus euphratica Conservation Park located in the middle reaches of the Tarim River. Stem sap flow of these P. euphratica had been measured using thermal pulse trunk flow meter, and their diel sap flow variation characteristics had been analyzed. Besides, a stepwise regression equation between meteorological factors and the diel variation of sap flow rate had been established in order to illustrate the impact of meteorological factors on diel variation of sap flow rate. The results showed that:(1) Although P. euphratica in each transect are belong to different DBH and vitality group, their sap flow rate are very different, but have similar variation characteristics in the measuring days, all display very obvious day-night shift. Sap flow diel variation process of P. euphratica with good vitality display one peak, while those with bad vitality display two peaks. (2) Sap flow rate and its daily accumulation of P. euphratica with good vitality and older DBH is more than those with younger and bad vitality P. euphratica. Daily sap flow accumulation sequence of the P. euphratica is as follows:old P. euphratica with good vitality > mature P. euphratica with good vitality > old P. euphratica with bad vitality > young P. euphratica with good vitality > mature P. euphratica with bad vitality > young P. euphratica with bad vitality. (3) Though the P. euphratica in each transect are belong to different vitality and DBH group, the effect of meteorological factors on their sap flow rate are almost at the same level. The variation of sap flow rate is positively related to solar radiation, air temperature, wind speed and soil temperature, while, negatively related to air humidity. Among these factors, solar radiation, air temperature and air humidity have the highest effect on diel variation of sap flow rate.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 166-175 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2412KB] ( 92 )
176 The vegetation coverage change based on NDVI of the wetland by Manas Lake, Xinjiang
WANG Lichun, JIAO Li, LAI Fengbing
Based on Landsat remote sensing images of 2000, 2006, 2010, 2013 and 2016, the vegetation coverage of the wetland by Manas Lake were retrieved based on the dimidiate pixel model. Through dynamic degree and transfer matrix analyses, the conversion ratio of vegetation coverage in different times were compared, and the driving force of vegetation change was analyzed. It was found that:the vegetation coverage in the wetland was generally poor in 2000-2016; the extra-low vegetation coverage ratio had increased from 19.6% to 46.3%, the low vegetation coverage ratio had decreased from 60.6% to 28.7%, the middle vegetation coverage ratio had decreased from 9.4% to 4.6%; the middle and high vegetation coverage ratio was relatively changed less, with the proportion increasing from 2.9% to 4.2%, the high vegetation coverage ratio had increased from 7.4% to 16.2%; as a whole, the utilized land in the areas of desert saline land and farm land is gradually increasing; the main factors that affect vegetation coverage and shrinkage of lakes are the large-scale exploitation of land resources in the main stream basin by over-utilization of water resources and human activities.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 176-185 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF3374KB] ( 89 )
186 The classification and comprehensive assessment of the geological relics resources in Mt. Yulong National Geopark
QI Cuishan, HE Yuanqing, WANG Shijin, HE Ze, SHI Xiaofei, SHI Xiaoyi
According to the literature review, field investigations and the latest taxonomy on geological relics issued by the Ministry of Land and Resources in 2016, the geological relics of the geological park at Mt. Yulong were classified into several types. Additionally, the methods of Analytic Hierarchy Process and Comprehensive Assessment are also applied for the evaluation of sub-classified geoheritages. Accordingly, the geoheritages in the park can be classified into five categories, including geological profile, geological structure, physiognomy landscape, environment geological relics and water landscape, 9 classes and 15 subclasses. Moreover, the weight of evaluation factor decreased in the following order:Cultural attribute > Natural quality, Scientific value=Popular science value > Aesthetic value > Economic and social value > Typical > Rarity > Systematicness > Historical and cultural value > Naturalness. In addition, the subclass geological relic resources were divided into three grades, including 4 in Level I, 8 in Level Ⅱ and 3 in Level Ⅲ. Generally, the geological relics in national geopark at Mt. Yulong was characterized by multi-types and well preserved. It also recognized that fluvial geomorphology and tectonic landform are predominant in the park, and the most typical geological relics belong to the glacial landforms. The geoheritages with rich types are of high quality and great significance for scientific research and popularization, particularly for the geoscience research. Moreover, the evaluation of geoheritages in Mt. Yulong Geopark can provide a basis and reference for reasonable protection and sustainable uses of the geological relic resources.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 186-196 [Abstract] ( 15 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF3315KB] ( 242 )
197 Discussion on the scientific research relevant to loess geological hazards
WANG Dekai, ZHANG Manyin, YE Weilin, LIU Xingrong, CHEN Yujin, ZHANG Mingli
Loess geological hazards prevention is a new subject, and the foundation of its discipline depends on the progress of loess science and its own gradual perfection. The problems of loess science related to the geological disasters of loess include at least three aspects:loess geological disaster, loess science foundation theory and Loess Plateau environment. The rapid development of the social economy in the loess area has raised serious challenges and more far-reaching needs for the development of loess science and technology. Combined the summary of long-term work experience and based on the analysis of a large amount of literatures, it is recommended 32 research topics on loess, Loess Plateau and loess geological disasters, which are urgently needed multi-subject, multi-professional scholar joint research and provide more directive and comprehensive innovations.
2018 Vol. 40 (1): 197-204 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF494KB] ( 145 )
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