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2017 Vol.39 Issue.3,
Published 2017-06-25

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2017 Vol. 39 (3): 0-0 [Abstract] ( 16 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF15164KB] ( 189 )
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2017 Vol. 39 (3): 0-0 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1734KB] ( 117 )
455 Numerical tests on the impacts of surface evaporation and condensation fractionation on stable isotopes in precipitation:a comparison of spatial distribution
ZHANG Xinping, GUAN Huade, ZHANG Xinzhu, ZHANG Wanjun, YAO Tianci
Using the isotope enabled atmospheric water balance model (iAWBM), the spatial variations of stable isotopic effects in precipitation is simulated under different condensation fractionation nature and surface evaporation inputs with the same weather forcing, in the framework of the water balance and stable water isotope balance, in order to reveal the impact mechanism of the in-cloud isotopic fractionation and vapor isotopic composition from surface evaporation on simulated precipitation isotopic characteristics, improve the understanding of the stable water isotope cycle in the globe, through the comparison between simulations and GNIP observations and intercomparisons among simulations. Results show that the distributional situations of mean δ18O and δ18O seasonality in precipitation simulated by four simulation tests are in good agreement with GNIP observations. The distributional characteristics of temperature effect and amount effect, as well as global MWL are well simulated. Comparatively, under the assumptions of equilibrium fractionation, simulated spatial distribution of mean annual δ18O and simulated global MWL are closer to GNIP observations, with the best fitting level. Under the assumption of kinetic fractionation, the correlation degree between simulated and observed spatial series of δ18O seasonality in precipitation is significantly enhanced, and the fitting level of simulation relative to observation improved. As the kinetic fractionation and δe seasonality are considered together, the ability of iAWBM reproducing global spatial distribution of δ18O-T and δ18O-P correlations is significantly enhanced.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 455-468 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF9763KB] ( 119 )
469 Numerical tests on the impacts of surface evaporation and condensation fractionation on stable isotopes in precipitation:a comparison of temporal variation (taking the isotopes in precipitation at Changsha as an example)
ZHANG Xinping, GUAN Huade, ZHANG Xinzhu, ZHANG Wanjun, YAO Tianci
Using the simulation data of the isotope enabled atmospheric water balance model (iAWBM), the temporal variations of δ18O in precipitation, amount effect, negative temperature effect and meteoric water line (MWL) are analyzed in order to reveal the impact mechanism of the in-cloud isotopic fractionation and vapor isotopic composition from surface evaporation on simulated precipitation isotopic characteristics, improve the understanding of stable isotopic effects in monsoon areas, through the comparison between simulations and 5-year observations in Changsha and intercomparisons among the simulations. The results simulated by four iAWBM tests all reproduce the observed seasonal variation of δ18O in precipitation. The basic characteristics in monsoon areas that stable isotopes in precipitation are depleted during warm months and enriched during cold months. Compared with the simulations under equilibrium fractionation, the depleted degree of stable isotopes in precipitation is enhanced under kinetic fractionation, in company with a decrease of isotopic seasonality and inter-event variability. The variations of stable isotopes in precipitation, caused by the seasonal variation of stable isotopes in vapor evaporated from the surface (δe), are opposite between different seasons. In Changsha, a lower δ18O in precipitation during warm months and a higher δ18O in precipitation during cold months lead to the increase of isotopic seasonality in precipitation and inter-event variability. Four simulations all produce the amount effect and negative temperature effect commonly observed in monsoon areas. Under kinetic fractionation, the slopes of simulated amount effect and negative temperature effect decrease relative to under equilibrium fractionation; but increase under the δe seasonality. The MWLs for warm and humid climate in monsoon areas are well simulated too. The slopes and intercepts of the simulated MWLs decrease under kinetic fractionation, as well as under δe seasonality.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 469-478 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2647KB] ( 98 )
479 Climate characteristics in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic
WANG Shujie, DING Minghu, SUN Weijun, BIAN Lingen, LU Changgui, XIAO Cunde, WEI Ting, ZHANG Dongqi, ZHANG Tong, WANG Yetang, DOU Tingfeng
Based on the automatic weather station observation of Yellow River Station, AWIPEV and NPI, in Ny-Ålesund, Arctic, the statistical climate characteristics of Ny-Ålesund have been analyzed in this paper. Variations of temperature, specific humidity, air pressure, wind speed and direction are described in detail. The main objective is to further assess Arctic climate change based on these meteorological records in Ny-Ålesund. The results show that:1) The annual mean temperature was (-3.3±0.7)℃ during 2005-2014, and the highest monthly mean temperature occurs in July while the lowest occurs in March. It was also found that the warming rate of Ny-Ålesund (0.76±0.29)℃·(10a)-1 was around four times larger than the global mean (0.17±0.03)℃·(10a)-1 during 1975-2014. 2) The annual mean relative humidity was (75.9±1.0)% during 2005-2014, and the highest (lowest) monthly mean relative humidity appeared in August (April), one month later than the highest (lowest) monthly mean temperature. The annual mean specific humidity was (2.5±0.1) g·kg-1, with a positive increasing rate of (0.14±0.12) g·kg-1·(10a)-1 from 1994 through 2010. The annual air pressure was (1 008.2±2.1) hPa averaged from 2005 through 2014, with the highest monthly mean in May and the lowest one in December; diurnal variation of air pressure showed double peaks. 4) The annual wind speed was (3.3±0.3) m·s-1 averaged from 2006 through 2013. Due to the local environmental condition (e.g., topography, ice caps and glaciers) in Svalbard, the prevailing wind direction is southeast. In summary, a typical polar marine climate governed this area, and the special underlying surface, snow and ice in winter and polar tundra in summer, also had significant effect.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 479-489 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF5493KB] ( 100 )
490 An analysis of drought and flood disasters in the Heihe River basin based on historical documents
TANG Xia, ZHANG Zhiqiang
Study on the characteristics and variation of drought and flood is very important for studying water resource evolution in a river basin. Historical documents and the records of two cities (Zhangye and Jiuquan) about watershed flood and drought were used and integrated to rebuild a drought and flood gradation sequence of the Heihe River basin from 0 to 1949 A.D., through the methods of moving average and wavelet transform processing, to understand the frequency and cycle of drought in the past and their relationships with climate and human activities in the basin. The results showed that there were five drought phases (1230-1270, 1430-1530, 1640-1760, 1860-1890, and 1900-1940) and three flood phases (1650-1690, 1730-1790 and 1830-1910). From 1000 to 1949 A.D., there were four quasi-periodic variations of drought and flood in the basin, which were closely related with solar activity. Before 1580, climate change was the main factor of drought and flood disaster. However, after the 16th century, the frequent events of alternate drought and flood seemed to be caused by human activities. Therefore, quantitatively analyzing the effects of natural factors and human activities on drought and flood disasters in the basin should be the focus of future research.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 490-497 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1392KB] ( 77 )
498 Study of the frost and snow disasters in southwestern Ordos Plateau during Qing dynasty
MA Xiaohua, ZHAO Jingbo, WEN Zhenjun
Based on collection, arrangement and mathematical analysis of historical documents and materials, the grades, stages, spatiotemporal difference, period and cause of frost and snow disasters from 1644 through 1912 (i.e., Qing dynasty) in southwestern Ordos Plateau are researched. During this period 57 disaster events had occurred, of which there were 10 of mild grade, 43 of moderate grade and 4 of severe grade. Disaster period can be divided into five phases:1644-1733, 1734-1783, 1784-1833, 1834-1863 and 1864-1912, respectively. Temporally, frost and snow disasters in the region frequently occurred in November, December, April and March. Spatially, the disasters concentrated in Yinchuan, Zhongwei, Pingluo, Yongning, Yanchi and Dingbian. Wavelet analysis showed that the occurrence of frost and snow disaster events had four obvious periods (i.e., 3 years, 6 years, 27 years and 58 years). Sharp air temperature dropping to below 0℃ due to cold current was dominant inducement of frost and snow disasters in southwestern Ordos Plateau.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 498-504 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1056KB] ( 72 )
505 Characteristics and variations of the ground temperature field in Liaoning Province
GONG Qiang, WANG Hongyu, ZHU Ling, XU Hong, GU Zhengqiang, CHAO Hua, LIN Na, SHEN Lidu
The ground temperature data ranging from 0 to 320 cm depths from 61 meteorological stations in Liaoning Province during 1951-2013 was taken to study ground temperature fields and changing characteristics in the seasonally frozen soil regions by using statistical analysis method. The results show that the coldest month of the ground temperature postponed with depth. The coldest month of the shallow ground temperature was January for the most area of the province, and postponed to January to May with depth increasing. The warmest month of the ground temperature postponed with increasing depth as well. The warmest month of the shallow ground temperature was in June or July, but in August or October as depth increasing to 320 cm. The deeper the depth, the smaller the effect of surface temperature. There was around 19℃ difference of maximum monthly average temperature between 320 cm depth and on the surface, but it was only 8℃ or so between 40 cm depth and on the surface. With the increase of depth, seasonal change of ground temperature was reduced. The temperature difference was less than 8℃ within a year at 320 cm depth. The energy storage period was from March through August at the depth of 5-80 cm, which was from May through September at the depth of 160 cm depth and from June through October at the depth of 320 cm depth. The more closing to the surface, the more obvious the daily variation of ground temperature. The daily variation of ground temperature could be ignored under 40 cm depth. The increasing trend of ground temperature was greater than that of air temperature in Shenyang, which showed that soil transmit heat into the atmosphere. The increasing trend of the surface temperature in the coldest month was more than that in the warmest month significantly. But there was no obviously warming of soil temperature with depth. The inter annual variation of the deep ground temperature was not the climate disturbance sometimes, and a part of the heat was from deep of the earth. Therefore, some possible influence due to ground temperature variation on climate and the engineering geological properties can not be ignored.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 505-514 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF7286KB] ( 75 )
515 Cloud removing algorithm for the daily cloud free MODIS-based snow cover product over the Tibetan Plateau
QIU Yubao, ZHANG Huan, Chuduo, ZHANG Xuecheng, YU Xiaoqi, ZHENG Zhaojun
Snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in feedback and regulating to water and energy cycles of the High Asia. Snow melt supplies river runoff, which has an important influence on the social and economic development for the downstream areas. Medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) is widely used in dynamic remote sensing to monitor snow cover variation, because of its high temporal and spatial resolution. However, optical remote sensing snow cover is seriously affected by cloudy weather. Especially, water vapor over the plateau is low and inhomogeneous, with active convection, resulting in snow cover rapid changing. All the problems bring a challenge to the daily cloud-free snow monitoring and snow climatology mapping in the plateau. Considering the local terrain and snow cover characteristics in the Tibetan Plateau, in this study, based on the existing cloud removal algorithms, gradually controlling cloudage, the daily cloud-free MODIS snow cover algorithm has been carried out. The snow depth records from 145 ground stations for two snow seasons, from 1st October, 2009 through 30th April, 2011, are used to qualify the accuracies of various algorithm processes. The qualifying show that when snow depth is above 3 cm, the total classification accuracy of daily cloud-free snow products is 96.6%, snow classification accuracy is 83.0% and the recall rate is 89%. The new cloud removal process is proved having high precision and is suitable for daily dynamic monitoring snow cover. It provides a new way for reconstructing snow climatology data over the Tibetan Plateau. It is useful to study global environmental change, such as water, ecology, disaster and their impacts on the High Asia.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 515-526 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF6634KB] ( 75 )
527 Climate characteristics of the initial ice date and end ice date in east of the Hexi Corridor
YANG Xiaoling, CHEN Haibei, DING Wenkui, WANG Heling
Using initial ice date and end ice date, as well as soil and air temperature data, from five meteorological stations in east of the Hexi Corridor during 1961-2015, temporal and spatial change characteristics of initial ice date and end ice date and their relation to soil, air temperatures and altitude were analyzed in this paper with modern climate diagnosis method. The results showed that, temporally, the initial ice date was earlier in mountains, followed by desert, finally in oasis and plain, and the end ice date was later in mountains, followed by desert, finally in oasis and plain, because of the influence of altitude, topography, vegetation and surface lithology. Initial ice date and end ice date had certain abnormal locally, with the probability of about 60% of normal initial ice date and end ice date. Probability of partial early year and early year of initial ice date and probability of partial late and late year of end ice date, which will cause hazard to production, were about 20%. There was a good correspondence between initial ice date and end ice date and the year with abnormal temperature. The initial ice date tended to delay and the end ice date tended to get early, the delayed magnitude was more than the early magnitude. Time series of initial ice date and end ice date had ten to twelve years and eight to ten years quasi-periodic variation, respectively. There were extremely significant correlations between initial ice date and end ice date and soil and air temperatures and altitude. The initial ice date will delay about 3.0 d and 3.5 d and the end ice date will about 4.2 d and 4.9 d ahead of time for 1 degree centigrade increase of soil and air temperature; the initial ice date will 1.8 d ahead of time and the end ice date will delay 2.5 d for every 100-m altitude increase. The end ice date was more sensitive response to climate warming and altitude increasing than the initial ice date.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 527-533 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1738KB] ( 71 )
534 A study of temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of short-term heavy rainfall in Hohhot from 1961 through 2010
MA Suyan, LI Linhui
Based on the daily precipitation data from 1961 through 2010 at six meteorological stations in Hohhot, the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of the short-term heavy rainfall were analyzed with mathematical statistics, moving average and Mann Kendall test. The results indicate that the temporal-spatial distribution of short-term heavy rainfall was extremely uneven, with the maximum in south of Hohhot and along the windward slopes of mountains. In this period, the short-term heavy rainfall event has obvious characteristics of annual cycle and daily variation. The short-term heavy rainfall frequency occurs in later July or early August. A majority of short-term heavy rainfall events often occur in afternoon and evening. Annual and interannual variations of short-term heavy rainfall events showed a positive anomaly in the 1990s; the short-term heavy rainfall frequency in Hohhot showed that there was a rising trend since 1993, and past the critical line of significant test in 1997, and then had a distinct upward trend and reached a peak in 1998.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 534-539 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1174KB] ( 78 )
540 The relationship between Abies fargesii tree-ring width and climate factors at Niubeiliang Natural Reserve in eastern Qinling Mountains of China
QIN Jin, BAI Hongying, ZHAI Danping, WANG Jun, LI Shuheng, LI Bin
By the methods of dendrochronology, response analysis and multi-linear regression analysis, the climate connotation were uncovered, which is contained in the Abies fargesii tree-ring width in the major ridge of the eastern Qinling Mountains in Niubeiliang Nature Reserve. Both of Abies fargesii standardized chronology and residual chronology are of high characteristic values, which indicated that the tree-ring materials contain high environmental information. Through correlation analysis, it is discovered that temperatures in spring and summer are the dominant factor for the radial growth of Abies fargesii. The temperature averaged from January to August, especially from January to February, has positive effect on the growth of Abies fargesii. The temperature averaged from previous October to November also has effect on matter accumulations of Abies fargesii. Precipitation is not the major limiting factor for the growth of tree, but high precipitation in January and February might slow down the organization of formation for Abies fargesii, whereas, the precipitation from February to April had positive effect on the accumulation of photosynthesis product. The multi-linear regression model is available to simulate the relationship between climate factors and the chronology. It is proved via the analysis of typical year that the variation in the tree-ring annual width is due to a mutual and counterbalance effect of air temperature and precipitation in growth season. It is predicted that the Abies fargesii forest may migrate to higher altitude. This study provides a basis for studying the ecological pattern evolution under the process of climate change in Qinling Mountains.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 540-548 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1390KB] ( 81 )
549 Study of the sedimentology and OSL dating of the Last Deglaciation paleoflood events along Maqu section in the source regions of the Yellow River
CHEN Yinglu, HUANG Chunchang, ZHANG Yuzhu, GUO Yongqiang, ZHOU Yali, ZHA Xiaochun, PANG Jiangli, SHI Binnan, LIU Wenjin
Pedo-sedimentological investigations were carried out in the source regions of the Yellow River. A set of paleoflood slack water deposits (SWDs) was identified along Maqu section of the Yellow River based on sedimentary criteria and analytical results, which contain climate and hydrological information. Sediment samples were systematically taken from loess-soil profiles at Taiwuruo study site and magnetic susceptibility, grain-size distribution, geochemical elements and micromorphology were analyzed in laboratory for identifying the paleoflood SWDs. The results show that these SWDs are defined as sandy silt, which are similar to the modern flood SWD; the modern soil is defined as clayey silt; the modern aeolian sand is defined as medium sand. The shape of particle size distribution curve of the paleoflood SWDs is very similar to that of the modern flood SWD, very different from modern aeolian sand and modern soil. The magnetic susceptibility of the paleoflood SWDs and the modern flood SWD are slightly higher than that of the modern aeolian sand, but significantly lower than that of the modern soil. Chemical elements of the paleoflood SWDs are distinctly different from modern soil and modern aeolian sand. The analysis of the morphological characteristics of the quartz particles shows that the surface of the paleoflood SWD and the modern flood SWD are distributed with V-shaped pits, triangular marks, concave surfaces typically caused by physical collision and friction in running water. The morphological characteristics of the quartz particles reflect different microscopic differences in sedimentary environment. Analytical results, including magnetic susceptibility, particle-size distribution, concentrations of chemical elements and micromorphology, indicate that these well-sorted paleoflood SWDs were deposited from the suspended sediment load in floodwaters. This hydro-climatic event was dated to 13.6-13.0 ka BP by using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating method. The period corresponds to the transition period of the Last Deglaciation to the Holocene, corresponds to the Bolling/Aellrod warming event in the Last Deglaciation in Europe and the Greenland ice core. At this time, the phenomenon of glacier ablation was prevalent in the Tibetan Plateau, which may be concluded that the paleoflood events were closely related to glacier ablation in the same basin. These results are of great significance to mitigate flood disasters and to exploit water resources, as well as to understand hydrological response to global climate change.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 549-562 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF4564KB] ( 114 )
563 Analysis of the spatiotemporal characteristics of solar radiation intensity in Qinghai Province
BAO Guangyu, ZHANG Jing, ZHOU Dan, MA Shoucun, LIU Wei
Using total daily radiation data from five stations and temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration data from 50 stations in Qinghai Province from 1971 through 2014, the amount of solar radiation and meteorological elements were analyzed and established radiation calculation method for no solar radiation observation regions. Solar radiation variation and distribution characteristics in Qinghai Province have calculated and analyzed according to the meteorological station data and the amount of solar radiation. The results showed that annual solar radiation in the province was between 5 668-7 091 MJ·m-2, gradually decreasing from northwest to southeast. There were 42 stations, accounting for 84% of the total, having annual solar radiation more than 6 000 MJ·m-2. The amount of solar radiation in spring and summer gradually increased from southeast to northwest and gradually decreased from northwest to southeast in autumn and winter with small spatial difference in the province. There was the strongest solar radiation from April to August. Ten days strong solar radiation mainly concentrated in early March to early October and weekly strong solar radiation mainly concentrated in the 12th to the 43rd week. Daily solar radiation variation had a parabola shape, low in the morning and evening, rising after sunrise, and reaching the highest at about 13:00. The duration of solar radiation increased from March and decreased from September.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 563-571 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF6808KB] ( 73 )
572 Analysis of spatial-temporal characteristics of evapotranspiration in the lower reaches of Heihe River based on surface energy balance system model and Landsat 8 data
JIN Xuejie, ZHOU Jian
The studies of evapotranspiration (ET) estimate and the spatial and temporal characteristics in the lower reaches of the Heihe River help to further understand the hydrological cycle, the rational use of water resources, preventing further deterioration of the ecological environment. Using surface energy balance system (SEBS) model to estimate the 15-day ET in 2014 and comparing with the EC measured in five different underlying sites in Ejina Oasis, the root mean square error and determination coefficient were 1.2 mm, 0.85 (in 5 sites) and 0.5 mm, 0.964 (in 2 sites), which showed that SEBS model was reasonable and could be applied to estimate ET of Ejina oasis regions. At the same time, analyzing the spatial and temporal variation of ET in the lower reaches of Heihe River showed that ET of Ejina oasis had obvious seasonal variation in the rank of summer > spring > autumn > winter, and had significant spatial differential along the river trend. The ET on different land cover types had similar seasonal variation, but the seasonal variation rates were not the same, decreasing as follows:water > arable land > shrub land > grassland > bare land > sandy land.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 572-582 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF7118KB] ( 74 )
583 Correction of the daily precipitation data over the Tibetan Plateau with machine learning models
CHEN Hao, NING Chen, NAN Zhuotong, WANG Yudan, WU Xiaobo, ZHAO Lin
In this paper, five machine learning models, namely k-nearest neighbor (KNN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), support vector machine (SVM), multinomial log-linear models (MLM) and artificial neural networks (ANN), are selected to correct two commonly used precipitation datasets, ITPCAS (Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and CMORPH (climate prediction center morphing technique), over the Tibetan Plateau by establishing the relationship between daily precipitation and environmental data (elevation, slope, aspect, vegetation), as well as meteorological factors (air temperature, humidity, wind speed). The 5-fold cross validation shows that the KNN has the highest accuracy. The error analysis over the Tanggula, Xidatan and Wudaoliang Stations and the spatial analysis on annual precipitation over the plateau show that the KNN model can significantly correct the CMORPH over the plateau and the correction on the ITPCAS is significant locally. The KNN-corrected CMORPH has lower accuracy than the two ITPCAS precipitation. Principal component analysis indicates that the correction is the comprehensive effects of both environmental and meteorological factors.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 583-592 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF4349KB] ( 81 )
593 Study of the mechanical characteristics of slip zone soils sampled from loess-mudstone interface
CHEN Wenwu, LIU Wei, LIN Gaochao, SUN Guanping, WU Weijiang
Slip zone soil, an important part of landslide, is a layer of soil which has weak structure, of which the physical and mechanical properties and the microstructure are closely related to the development of landslide and the followed motion features. The loess-mudstone interface landslide is classified according to the geological origin, of which the upper part is loess while the underlying one is mudstone. This kind of landslide is difficult to be noticed in early stage due to the features of gentle movement with low velocity. So when it caught the attention, it had resulted in serious harm. In this thesis, the GDS triaxial apparatus was used to research the mechanical properties of the slip zone soils which were sampled from Huanancun landslide, Banshancun landslide and Zuitoucun Landslide. The change characteristics of the mechanical properties were analyzed in combination with microstructure features. The research results show that there are larger particles wrapped by clay in the slip zone. These larger particles suffer dislocation and slippage during the deformation of slip zone soil. Meanwhile, they would be restricted by the ambient clay. As a result, in the slip zone soil shows typical macroscopic characteristics of strain hardening. Besides, another important feature of this kind landslide is that the pore water pressure cannot dissipate timely. Strain hardening makes the slip zone soil remain in continuous movement without significant residual strength, and the energy is releasing gradually. These reasons makes this kind of landslide moves gently with low velocity.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 593-601 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF3689KB] ( 81 )
602 Experimental study on the effect of nano-silicon on frozen clay sand strength
HU Kai, CHEN Xiaoqing
A series of triaxial compressive tests on frozen clay sand with 1% nano-silicon were carried out under confining pressure of 0.3~18 MPa at -2℃. The test results show that the strength of frozen soil with nano-silicon has a significant growth, and the proportion of growth even reaches 130% under 3 MPa. The strength changes with increasing confining pressure in three distinct phases:strengthen phase, pressure melting phase and residual phase. The stress-strain curves show strain-softening under various confining pressures. The improved Duncan-Chang hyperbolic model is taken to simulate the stress-strain behaviors and can well describe the strain-softening. Through differentiating the improved Duncan-Chang hyperbolic model, a relation between initial tangent modulus and confining pressure is obtained, which can be divided into three phases:strengthen phase, pressure melting phase and residual phase.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 602-608 [Abstract] ( 12 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1446KB] ( 55 )
609 Loess landslide in Longxi of Gansu Province:precipitation inducted function and space-time effect
WEI Linsen, DING Hongwei, WANG Ting, KANG Liang, ZHANG Lingpeng, WANG Guoya
In this paper, based on in-situ investigation and test data, the landslide type and characteristics in the Longxi Loess Plateau of Gansu Province were summarized, the formation mechanisms of the loess landslide were analyzed from four aspects:change in topography, change in landslide composition, change in landslide soil structure and change in landslide mechanical strength, which were all caused by atmospheric precipitation (mainly by heavy rain or continuous rain). According to precipitation and the number of landslide event in some typical areas, the impact and effect of atmospheric precipitation upon the landslide were described from three aspects (including annual precipitation, precipitation process and precipitation space-time change features). In the same area, it was found that there was a good correlation between the landslide frequency and annual precipitation, for instance, in wet years the number of landslide event was 3~5 times than that in dry years and 1~2 times than ordinary year. During a year, the landslide concentrated from June through September and from February through March, when the number of landslide event accounted for more than 80% of the total. In various regions, the larger the precipitation and rainfall intensity, the higher the loess landslide occurrence frequency and the larger the landslide scale. From southeast to northwest, with decreasing precipitation and rainfall intensity, there were, in turn, loess landslide stronger development areas, strong development areas and general development areas.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 609-615 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1268KB] ( 53 )
616 Analyzing the impact of relief amplitude to loess landslides based on SRTM DEM in Tianshui Prefecture
SU Xing, WEI Wanhong, GUO Wanqin, WANG Siyuan, WANG Guoya, WU Weijiang, YE Weilin
Based on the SRTM DEM in the resolution of 30 m in municipal districts of Tianshui Prefecture, spatial neighborhood analysis was done with the window of 29 different sizes (from 2×2, 3×3,…, to 30×30). Then, mean change-point analysis was done to select the best statistical unit (the size of window). The results show that the curve appeared a inflection point at the grid unit of 12×12 mesh size (12.96×104 m2), which can be taken as a threshold and be used as the optimal analytical unit. Hereby, a grade diagram of relief amplitude can be completed in the study area with the mesh size of 12×12. The correlation of loess landslides with relief amplitude were quantitatively calculated with certainty factor method, weights-of-evidence method, information method and conditional probability method. The result shows that the relief amplitude of 60~120 m is the sensitive relief, in which, 60~90 m is the relief with most landslides and is most sensitive to landslides.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 616-622 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2267KB] ( 54 )
623 Research of the strength model of cement solidified lead-contaminated soil under freezing and thawing cycles
WANG Qiang, YIN Yuting, CUI Jinyang, TANG Rui
In this paper, the cement solidified contaminated soil was taken as a research object, and a unconfined compressive strength test of solidified contaminated soil under freezing and thawing cycles were carried out in laboratory. The test results showed that the strength of cement solidified lead contaminated soil increased with cement content, and the compressive strength of solidified contaminated soil increased with freezing and thawing cycles at first and reaching a peak, then it decreased with freezing and thawing cycles. With the increase of freezing and thawing cycles, the unconfined compressive strength loss of the solidified contaminated soil with lead ion concentration was different, with a minimum compressive strength loss at the lead ion concentration of 0.5%. Through data fitting, a strength prediction model of the solidified contaminated soil with freezing and thawing cycles can be achieved, which can be used in actual project.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 623-628 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1562KB] ( 70 )
629 Experimental study of the strength of expansive soil changing with temperature
ZHAI Juyun, WEI Guoxiang, HAO Xiao, MA Mingjiang, YAN Zhixin
Shear strength test of expansive soil sampled from Pingdingshan of Henan Province has carried out for studying the strength of expansive soil changing with temperature, water content, dry density and pressure. The results show that the strength of expansive soil has a significant change with water content under the same pressure. When moisture reaches to a certain extent, shear strength would change no more with pressure, that is, the internal friction angle equals to 0. When moisture is higher, temperature has significant effect. Under same pressure, water content and dry density, the shear strength increases with temperature as ice disappears, but it depends on dry density as ice appears. As for smaller water content and less pressure, shear strength depends on temperature insignificantly.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 629-633 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1885KB] ( 63 )
634 Fuzzy genetic inversion of creep parameters of artificial frozen soil in deep alluvium
YAO Yafeng, RONG Chuanxin, CHENG Hua, XU Guangshu
Creep characteristics of frozen soil are the key to freezing method construction of deep shaft. In the mining area, uniaxial compressive strength tests are conducted on the artificial frozen soil at -5℃, -10℃, -15℃ and -20℃. It is found that the compressive strength of artificial frozen soil has a linear relation with temperature, on the whole, when the temperature is decreasing, the uniaxial compressive strength will be increasing. On this basis, traditional genetic algorithm has been fuzzy random improved by niche theory and obtained a new thought, which was used to improve fuzzy genetic algorithm to inverse creep model parameters of artificial frozen soil and obtain corresponding creep model. Experiments show that creep model can accurately reflect the frozen soil creep law because the model calculation values fit the experiment values well in each creep stage. Thus, one can see that fuzzy genetic algorithm is able to inverse parameters effectively, which is more suitable for engineering practice as compared with the traditional inversion algorithm.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 634-640 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1559KB] ( 59 )
641 Study of early identifying and warning hail cloud by using Doppler Weather Radar
Rasul Abla, NIU Shengjie, ZHANG Lei, WANG Hongyan
Using C Band data of new Doppler Weather Radar and sounding data, in this study, 28 hail cases and 32 convection storm monomers upon the western oasis of Aksu Prefecture in Xinjiang from 2009 through 2015 were analyzed. The hail clouds were divided into three types (weak, medium and strong) and the life history of each hailstorm cloud be divided into three key stages (primary, jump and incubation) and then the spatial distribution, evolution and the relationship between different temperature layers were analyzed comprehensively. As a result, the characteristic parameters of radar echo and index threshold were selected, which could be helpful for identifying hail cloud in advance. Three hail cloud advance identification and early warning concept models had been established. At the same time, their recognition ability was validated. The results show that using this method, more than 80% recognition accuracy and appropriate early identification and effective operation time could be obtained, which may provide a scientific basis for early identification of hailstorm and decision making for effective artificial hail work.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 641-650 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF5952KB] ( 48 )
651 Mountainous runoff analysis and inflow forecast of the Shiyang River basin
LI Yuhong, LI Jisheng, SUN Chao, HUANG Chenlu
Runoff is an important basis for water resources planning, utilization, management and scheduling. According to the actual hydrological runoff data in the Shiyang River basin by investigation and measurement, surface water resources in the basin are calculated as 1.552 billion m3. The mountainous runoff characteristic values of every representative stations and typical annual runoff in the basin are statistical analyzed. It is found that the river runoff CV value is ranging from 0.15 to 0.35 and annual extreme value ratio is between 1.77-14.20, with a spatial distribution characteristic of gradual increasing from west to east obviously. The additive model is applied to predict inflow of the Shiyang River basin, resulting that the basin will be in high flow over the next four years.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 651-659 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1190KB] ( 108 )
660 Dynamics of water level of Lake Dongting during the past 60 years and the associated driving factors
ZHOU Lei, LI Jingbao, TANG Xiangming, ZHOU Yongqiang, LI Xichun
The associated driving factors for the variations of the water level of Lake Dongting were investigated based on observed hydrological series from 1956 to 2015 for the major gauging stations in the Lake Dongting watershed. Our results indicated that:(1) After the curving cut-off of the lower Jingjiang River and the closure of the mainriver at Gezhouba, the contribution percentages of the discharge of Three Outlets to the total inflow discharge to Lake Dongting decreased, resulting in a decreased water level of Lake Dongting at Nanzui. The increase of draining capability of the lower Jingjiang River, together with the increased sediment deposition in Lake Dongting, resulted in increased water levels at Chenglingji. After the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), rainfall in the lake watershed decreased notably and sediment erosion rate overrode that of deposition rate, water levels in Lake Dongting drop 0.31~0.58 meters compared with that during the period after the closure of the main river at Gezhouba. (2) Water level in Nanzui during the past 60 years decreased significantly (p<0.05), while water level at Chenglingji station showed a significant increasing trend (p<0.05), indicating driving factors of water level have different impacts on different lake regions. (3) Water level of Lake Dongting rose in April-May, remained in high level in June-September, decreased in October-November, and remained in low level in December-March. During the period after the closure of the mainriver at Gezhouba, water level of Lake Dongting during flood period rose notably, and decreased during the post-TGR period, and this is especially pronounced during July-October owe to flood-storage dispatch of TGR. (4) The rainfall in the lake Dongting watershed, the runoff of the four rivers into Lake Dongting, and the discharge of Yangtze River have been the main driving forces of the water level variations of Lake Dongting during the past 60 years. The suspended sediment deposition rate in Dongting Lake basin, resulting from the runoff and sediment discharge of the Three Outlet, is a secondary factor of the long-term variations of water level of Lake Dongting.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 660-671 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF7535KB] ( 93 )
672 Analysis on climate and hydrology change characteristics during historical time in the Altai Mountains
JIANG Shengxia, YUAN Yujiang, QIN Li, YU Shulong, SHANG Huaming, LU Mingxin, ZHANG Tongwen
Due to the special geographical location and climatic conditions, Altai Mountains is rich in forest resources. Tree-ring has become the primary method for studying the historical climate and hydrology change characteristics in this region. The dendroclimatological and dendrohydrology researches are concluded by analyzing the Altai Mountains of China summary in recent decades. To achieve better results, 5 reconstruction of temperature series, 3 reconstruction of precipitation series and 2 reconstruction of runoff series were selected for further research, and discussed and compared the stages, extreme years and cycles of these reconstructions. The results can be included the following four parts:(1) Reconstructed periods of temperature in the Altai Mountains all belong to the growing season. Five temperature reconstructions showed that 1690s-1700s, 1730s, 1780s-1790s were cold periods, and 1710s-1720s, 1800s-1830s, 1940s-1960s and 1990s were warm periods. Three indicated that the year 1830 was warm, while the year 1698, 1784, 1911, 1985-1986 were cold. (2) Comparing three precipitation reconstructions, we found that the precipitation during 1830s-1860s was relatively stable; 1870s-1900s was the longest dry period. Above precipitations all showed that the year 1900 was dry. (3) The wet epochs for both two runoff reconstructions occurred in 1730s and 1810s-1820s. The dry epochs lied in 1750s and 1870s-1890s. Precipitation in the Altai Mountains has greater influence to runoff of the Haba River. (4) Analysis of climatic variations in decadal timescales showed that warm-dry was the main climate type during 1830s-1990s in the Altai Mountains. Climate became warm and dry in the 1990s.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 672-679 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2483KB] ( 71 )
680 The hydrogeochemical characteristics of the river water in the section from Bayi Glacier to Huargzangsi of the Heihe River, Qilian Mountains
FENG Yawei, SUN Ziyong, BU Jianwei, CAI Hesheng
Research of the hydrogeochemistry in the source regions of the Heihe River is useful to search the basic changes in water quality along the river, and has positive significance for protecting the eco-environment in the regions. Through the previous researches, the lack of relevant background information about water quality in the source regions has improved. In this study, the source regions of the Heihe River are taken as the research object to understand the water quality of the river basin, through sampling and tasting the river water. The results show that the major chemical composition of the river water are K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl-, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42-. According to cluster analysis, Schukalev classification and trilinear diagram analysis, it was found that among the major ions, cations mainly comes from limestone weathering products, SO42- mainly comes from evaporating of mineral weathering products and human activities, and HCO3- mainly comes from pure carbonate weathering substances. Through heavy metal pollution surveying, it was found that the content of V, Co, Cu, Pb, Cr, Mn and Zn are much higher, and mine exploration is the main cause of heavy metal pollution.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 680-687 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF2304KB] ( 56 )
688 Prediction of water consumption in the urbanization course in Kashgar Prefecture, Xinjiang
Asadilla Yusup, Anwaer Maimaitiming
In this paper, according to the variation of water resources in the urbanization course in Kashgar Prefecture, water consumption and water use efficiency of various industrial structures in the next 30 years are predicted by using system dynamics theory and simulation technology, as well as the statistical data from 2002 through 2010. For better applying the prediction result about water resources under urbanization to simulation, three urbanization patterns (low, medium and high speed) were considered in the prediction. It was found that the Kashgar Prefecture was suitable to apply the medium speed pattern of urbanization. Through analysis, it was clear that adjust the relationship of urbanization speed with quality, than it will be able to guarantee sustainable utilization of water resources in the urbanization course.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 688-695 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 0KB] [ PDF1393KB] ( 64 )
696 The manage system of landslip prevention and mitigation in Hong Kong
ZHAO Hongtao, WANG Dekai, ZHANG Lianke, QI Yuan, MA Yiming, FENG Jin
Hong Kong used to suffer from people loss and property loss due to frequent slope gravity activities. The Hong Kong government has shouldered the responsibility of ensuring the slope safety since 1977. They established an integrated manage system which greatly reduced the number of accidents and consequence, thus building a successful case for the rest of the world. Based on in-situ exploratory, communications and discussions with Hong Kong officials, as well as relevant literature inquiries, the manage system of landslip prevention and mitigation in Hong Kong is understood clearly. It is useful for the similar regions in mainland and the relevant government departments to prevent and mitigate geological disasters in the future.
2017 Vol. 39 (3): 696-700 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF966KB] ( 73 )
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