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2017 Vol.39 Issue.4,
Published 2017-08-25

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2017 Vol. 39 (4): 0-0 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF15152KB] ( 67 )
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2017 Vol. 39 (4): 0-0 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF673KB] ( 56 )
701 Variation characteristics of glacier mass balance in Svalbard, Arctic, in recent 50 years
HE Haidi, LI Zhongqin, WANG Puyu, ZHANG Mingjun, WANG Lin
This research aims at analyzing mass balances of seven glaciers in Svalbard, Arctic, including Austre Brøggerbreen, Austre Lovénbreen, Hansbreen, Irenbreen, Kongsvegen, Midtre Lovénbreen and Waldemarbreen, by using their long-time series of mass balance. Also, the effects of temperature and precipitation on the mass balance are discussed. Results show that:In recent 50 years, glacier mass balance in Svalbard has been mainly in negative balance and zero balance with slightly positive balance two states. Cumulative mass balance has showed a negative balance without fluctuation in a short term, except for Kongsvegen. Seasonally, there has been ablation in summer and accumulation in winter, with ablation in summer more than accumulation in winter. Between glacier mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), there is a negatively correlation (mean R=-0.89); between glacier mass balance and the accumulation area ratio (AAR), there is a positively correlation (mean R=0.84). Most glacier accumulation area ratio is going to decrease, showing glacier mass supply is in a disadvantage, resulting in a negative balance of glacier mass. Summer temperature increasing is probably a direct cause for accelerating glacier mass loss.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 701-709 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1912KB] ( 114 )
710 Variation of glaciers in the Nubra basin, Karakoram Mountains, revealed by remote sensing images during 1993-2015
LIU Kai, WANG Ninglian, BAI Xiaohua
Many researches have shown that most glaciers in the world experiencing a general reduction in area due to climate warming in recent decades. Monitoring the glacier change by multiple remote sensing images provides a useful data set. Based on Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images, glacier boundaries were extracted with ratio threshold and visual interpretation method, and the characteristics of glacier variation were also analyzed in the Nubra basin, Karakoram Mountains, during 1993-2015. The results show that, compared with other regions in the Tibetan Plateau, the glacier retreat was smaller in the study area. The total glacierized area in the study area had shrunk by 103.24 km2, accounting for 4.64% of the total glacierized area, at a rate of 0.20%·a-1 as a whole. It can be concluded that the increase of air temperature is the main factor leading to the shrinkage of glacierized area in the study area. The retreat range of glaciers smaller than or equal to 0.1 km2 was the largest, and that of larger glaciers shrank at a relatively small rate. Glaciers with different aspects shrank differently. The maximum shrinkage occurred in northward glaciers, because they were small-scale, more sensitive to climate change. The eastward glaciers had the minimum shrinkage. There were nine glaciers had clearly advanced during 1993-2015.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 710-719 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF3847KB] ( 133 )
720 Variation characteristics of different levels of snow in Liaoning Province
ZHOU Xiaoyu, ZHAO Chunyu, CUI Yan, LIU Mingyan, AO Xue, LIN Rong, ZHANG Haina
Based on the daily snowfall data extracting from the daily precipitation data and snowfall weather data in Liaoning Province, the temporal and spatial characteristics of different levels of snowfall from 1961 to 2013 are analyzed by using a series of statistical methods. The results show that:The spatial distribution of snowfall and snowfall days is larger in mountainous region than that of plain area, reducing from northeast to the southwest; the snow intensity center is located in the plain area of the central city group of Liaoning Province. The snowfall and snowfall days showed patterns of double and single peaks distribution in the year, the snow level above the moderate snow is more happened in the late winter and early spring. The annual snowfall increased, and the annual snowfall days and snowfall intensity all decreased; The significant reduction of snowfall days are mainly due to the decrease of days of trace snow and light snow, especially the trace snow days, the significant increase of snowfall intensity is mainly due to the increase of snowstorm intensity. The periods of 1960s and 1970s witnessed more snowfalls, since the 1990s, the snowfall has increased and snowfall days has decreased. The proportion of snowfall to total snowfall in different regions, in Liaodong the trace snow snowfall days have the highest value, in the other areas the light snowfall days and the snowstorm snowfal have the largest percentage. For the snowfall there are 65.4% of the sites showed increasing trends, the snowfall days decreased by 96.2%, and the snowfall intensity increased by 90.4%, the snow variable ratio in the western region is larger than the east region. The proportion of the light snow snowfall and the trace snow days all showed decreasing trends, the contribution rate of the other different levels of snow have rising trends. The total and different levels of snowfall (snowfall days) increased with the increasing of latitude (altitude), and the total snowfall intensity and light snowfall intensity decreased.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 720-732 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF4957KB] ( 99 )
733 Elevation change of the Laohugou Glacier No.12 in the western Qilian Mountains from 2000 to 2014
ZHANG Qibing, KANG Shichang, WANG Jing
Glaciers in the Qilian Mountains have retreated since the 1990s, and the glacier ablation has great effect on the water resources in the arid Hexi corridor. The past studies based on remote sensing technology and field investigation has showed that the glacierized area had decreased, with terminus shrink upward, flow velocity slowing down and the equilibrium line altitude rising. In order to investigate the glacier elevation change by remote sensing technology, the interferometric phase of TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X (TSX/TDX) subtracted the interferometric phase simulated from the co-registered SRTM-C DEM using the satellite geometry and baseline model of the TSX/TDX, the resulted differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) phase was converted to the height difference. The thinning rate of the Laohugou Glacier No.12 had been (0.29±0.09) m·a-1 from 2000 to 2014. In an expedition in 2016, the elevation of the ablation area was measured using the Real Time Kinematic Global Position System (RTK-GPS), and the change in elevation was calculated via comparisons with the elevation of the matching points on the SRTM-C DEM acquired in 2000. These values were used to validate the DInSAR results and found a correlation coefficient of 0.6. The microwave remote sensing images of TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X and differential interferometry technology can be applied to study glacier elevation change in the western Qilian Mountains.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 733-740 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2426KB] ( 89 )
741 Relationship between land surface characteristics in the Tibetan Plateau and summer precipitation in China
GAO Rong, WEI Zhigang, ZHONG Hailing
In this paper, using the daily observed snow cover and frozen soil data in 72 meteorological stations in the Tibetan Plateau, AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and daily precipitation data from China's 550 meteorological stations, the relationships have been analyzed between the land surface characteristics in the Tibetan Plateau and summer precipitation in China. The results showed that the spatial consistency of summer precipitation is better in the North China and the southern region of Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and South China, with an approximation tendency among adjacent meteorological stations. Precipitation has an increasing trend in South China, the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Huaihe River basin, with an increase rate of 37 mm per 10 years in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, but a decreasing trend in North China. Precipitation change in South China, the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and North China is sensitive to the change of snow cover, frozen soil and vegetation in the Tibetan Plateau, but in Huaihe River basin it is only sensitive to the change of vegetation. The surface features in the Tibetan Plateau have been established with snow cover, frozen soil and vegetation, which has a good indication significance on the summer precipitation in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, Huaihe River basin and North China. The distribution of correlation coefficient between land surface conditions in the Tibetan Plateau and summer precipitation in China had "-~+~-" features from south to north. Finally, one conceptual model is established to describe the effect of plateau land surface conditions on summer precipitation in China. When snow cover is more (less) in winter and spring, frozen soil depth is deep (thin) in winter and vegetation is more (less) in spring, the soil humidity of plateau land in summer will be more (less) and surface sensible heat will be less (more). Thus the South Asian High and West Pacific Subtropical High will be weak (strong), so that the South China Sea monsoon will be weak (strong), resulting in more (less) rainfall over the Yangtze River basin, and less (more) rainfall in South China and North China.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 741-747 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1723KB] ( 81 )
748 The response of precipitation to global climate change in the Tianshan Mountains, China
LIU Youcun, JIAO Keqin, ZHAO Kui, LIU Yan, HAN Tianding, ZHONG Yu, SHEN Yongping, HAO Yonghong, YE Baisheng
The precipitation in the Tianshan Mountains and its response to global climate change is a hotspot in recent years. In this paper, precipitation dataset of 40 meteorological stations from 1951 through 2014 in the Tianshan Mountains and general climate indexes were used to analyze the precipitation changing trend in the Tianshan Mountains over the past 60 years, and to investigate the impact of general climate indexes on precipitation, through linear tendency estimation and correlation analysis. Result of the study shows that, firstly, precipitation is more in the north/west and alpine regions but less in the south/east and plain regions. There was an increasing tendency of precipitation, about 6 mm·(10a)-1. Secondly, SASMI is the main factor that controls annual precipitation, and there is a significant positive correlation between them. However, PDO, PNA and AO have a positive correlation with annual precipitation insignificantly in range and intensity. Thirdly, during dry seasons, precipitation is affected by various general climate indexes which have distinct spatial differential. SASMI has a little positive correlation with precipitation in the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and parts of the alpine regions, but it has a minor negative correlation with precipitation in the southern slopes of the western Tianshan Mountains. What's more, there is more similarity between ENSO and the precipitation variation in the southern and northern slopes and low-medium mountainous belts of the middle-western Tianshan Mountains. Finally, during wet seasons, there is more similarity between SASMI and precipitation variation in the southern and northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains, as well as in the alpine regions; also there is more similarity between PDO and precipitation variation in low mountainous belts in the southern and northern slopes of the middle-western Tianshan Mountains.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 748-759 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1856KB] ( 86 )
760 Land surface characteristics in soil freezing and thawing process on the Tibetan Plateau based on Community Land Model
CHEN Boli, LUO Siqiong, LÜ Shihua, FANG Xuewei, CHANG Yan
Using observational data from Zoige Station in the east of the Tibetan Plateau and the land surface process model, Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5), a degradation experiment, in which the freezing and thawing process of the model had been removed, was designed, then a simulation experiment for one year was conducted. Through comparison of the results between the original simulation and the sensitive experiment, the role of freezing and thawing process in the change of soil temperature and distribution of energy flux was preliminary analyzed. The conclusions are as follows:(1) Freezing and thawing process is a "buffer" for the change of soil temperature. Releasing the phase change energy to the environment during freeze slows the cooling rate of soil, which also makes the soil temperature not too low; while absorbing the phase change energy from the environment during the thaw slows the heating rate of soil. (2) Freezing and thawing process changes the surface radiation. The freeze of soil changes surface albedo, which changes the upward shortwave radiation. Due to the buffer role of freezing and thawing process, which delays the decrease of soil surface temperature, the upward longwave radiation is changed actually, which leads to variation of net radiation. (3) Freezing and thawing process remarkably changes the distribution of land surface energy. The release and absorption of phase change energy changes the transportation of energy between land and atmosphere, which also changes the sensible heat flux and latent heat flux by changing the surface temperature and surface evaporation. During the freezing process and the complete freezing phase, the sensible and latent heat flux increases, but the heat and latent heat flux decreases during the thawing process. The influence of freezing and thawing process on soil heat flux and sensible heat flux is more significant during the freezing process and the complete freezing phase, while that on latent heat flux is more significant during the thawing process.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 760-770 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF3030KB] ( 76 )
771 Constant inorganic ions in precipitation in the southern foothill of Taibai Mountain:characteristics and source
LU Aigang, LIU Hui, KANG Shichang, WANG Shao'an
A total of 74 effective precipitation samples collected from Huangbaiyuan of southern Taibai Mountain, from November, 2011 through September, 2014 were used as the research carriers. Constant inorganic ions (NH4+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-) in precipitation were analyzed. The data were dealt with the trend analysis and the correlation analysis methods and the sources were explored with the enrichment factor method, the source contribution method and backward trajectory model. The results showed that cation and anion concentrations in precipitation ranked as Ca2+ > SO42- > NH4+ > NO3- > K+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > Cl- > F-; of which Ca2+ and NH4+ were the major cations, accounting for 76.21% and SO42- and NO3- are the main anions, accounting for 90.83%. The average annual equivalent cation and anion concentrations in precipitation is 404.64 μeq·L-1, higher than any other already studied stations over the worldwide, showing the typical continental and human-source interference characteristics. Affected by emission factors, meteorological factors, vegetation, precipitation and other factors, total ion concentration in precipitation showed significant seasonal differences, followed by winter > spring > autumn > summer. Source analysis results showed that 95% of SO42- and NO3- came from anthropogenic contribution; the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were mainly from the crust sources; about a half of Na+ came from seasalt and another half of Na+ came from non-seasalt; K+ mainly from non-seasalt; F- and NH4+ almost all from anthropogenic sources. The ionization components of precipitation under different pathway were obviously different; northern air group came though Taiyuan, Shijiazhuang, Beijing, Lanzhou and other industrial cities, due to industrial coal and traffic emissions, the concentrations of SO42- and NO3- in precipitation were high and the total ion concentration was also higher than those in the southern air mass.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 771-780 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1452KB] ( 38 )
781 Composition and phylogeny of fungal community in supraglacial cryoconite and subglacial sediments of the Glacier No.1 at headwaters of the Ürümqi River in Tianshan Mountains
WANG Xuxian, GU Yanling, NI Xuejiao, GUAN Bo, NI Yongqing
The diversity, composition and phylogeny of fungal community in supraglacial cryoconites and subglacial sediments of the Glacier No.1 in the headwaters of the Tianshan Mountains, China are assessed. Analysis of amplified rDNA ITS region sequences allows grouping of 203 clones into 26 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using a cut-off of 99% identity. Twenty-two and twenty-one OTUs were found in the subglacial and supraglacial clone libraries, respectively. BLAST searches show that the subglacial community of the glacier was dominated by representatives of phylum Ascomycota (57% of clones), followed by phylum Basidiomycota (18% of clones) and Chytridiomycota (7% of clones), with the remainder of the library belonging to unclassified fungal OTUs (18% of clones). The supraglacial cryoconite sample had 27% Ascomycota, 22% Basidiomycota and 2.2% Chytridiomycota, and 49% of remaining library clones could not classified. Of the total 26 OTUs, 14 are related to Ascomycota cluster of sequences, including the genera Cladosporium, Aureobasidium, Tetracladium, Pseudeurotium, Fusarium, Penicillium, Simplicillium, Aspergillus. Cladosporium, which were absent in the subglacial sediment, were only present in supraglacial cryoconite sample. No clones related to Aureobasidium, a dominant group in the subglacial sediment (8.93%), were present in supraglacial cryoconite sample. The genera Aspergillus (17.86%) and Simplicillium (12.50%), which were rare in the supraglacial cryoconite library, were well represented in the subglacial sediment. In addition, Basidiomycota groups included relatives of Rhodotorula and Leucosporidium, of which the former well represented in the subglacial sediment (8.69%), the latter being the dominant group in the subglacial and supraglacial clone libraries. As a result, different glacial environments would harbor unique assemblages of microbes because they arose from different sources and/or undergo specific selective pressures in situ.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 781-791 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2045KB] ( 48 )
792 Analyzing the dynamic structural characteristics of the severe sandstorm caused by cold air crossing mountains in Southern Xinjiang on April 23rd, 2014
LI Na, MIN Yue, TANG Hao, LIU Wen
The upper-lower tropospheric circulation and dynamical structural characteristics of a strong sand-dust storm which occurred over southern Xinjiang on 23rd April, 2014 was investigated by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (horizontal resolution 1°×1°) and the 23rd~24th April field data from automatic meteorological station. The results are as follows:Affected by Balkhash Lake trough, the polar cold and dry air spread southwards and reached Tarim basin, resulting in strong pressure gradient of 40 hPa (1000km)-1 and surface cold front, further inducing strong wind and sand storms. Besides, the surface convergence of low pressure system upon the Tarim basin also contributed to the formation of "black storm" in Yuli region. (2) 300 hPa Polar Front Jetstream (PFJ) intruded southwards into the Tarim basin, further generated low-level Jet (LLJ) through the downward momentum transportation mechanism. PFJ and LLJ provided the dynamical conditions for the formation of sand storm. Near the Jetstream, all the upper atmospheric divergence, lower atmospheric convergence and stratification instability benefited the sandstorm. (3) Several dynamical characteristics of this strong sandstorm made it different from other sandstorms. First of all, severe dry-cold air and dry-warm air convergence stimulated thermal instability and induced heat convection. Secondly, upper atmospheric divergence, lower atmospheric convergence, Jet stream, LLJ and surface cold front worked together to strengthen the upward motion of lower atmosphere, so that the dust was involved into the air and transported. Most of all, Jet stream and LLJ together promoted the cold air and warm air vertical movement, the conversion from potential energy to kinetic energy generated the surface winds, which finally triggered the dust storms.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 792-800 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF5203KB] ( 55 )
801 Study of degree-day model from 2000 to 2016:the main progress and key issues
LIU Jie, ZHANG Wei, XIA Jun, SHEN Yongping, KANG Shichang
Snow cover is an important component of the cryosphere. The degree-day model based on the assumption of positive linear relationship between snow ablation and temperature is an effective tool to simulate the snow ablation. This paper summarizes the main research progress of degree-day model in following aspects:the classical degree-day model, the improvement of degree-day model, the distributed degree-day model and the application of remote sensing data in degree-day model from 2000 to 2016. Meanwhile, given the key parameters and variables, the applications and new progresses of temperature threshold of precipitation type, the degree-day factor and the radiation coefficient are summarized systematically. Collaborative research, combining with remote sensing, GIS and degree-day model, is the primary research orientation of degree-day model.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 801-810 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF467KB] ( 60 )
811 An analysis on the temporal-spatial characteristics of highway surface freezing in Beijing from 2008 to 2015
HU Yuling, KANG Yanzhen, YANG Xu, JIA Xiaohong, MIN Jingjing, WANG Shigong, SHANG Kezheng
As a major hazard factor, road icing plays a major impact on highway traffic safety in Beijing. The features of road icing were analyzed by using icing data from 28 traffic meteorological stations in Beijing from 2008 through 2015. The results are as follows:(1) There are regional differences in road icing of highway in Beijing. Icing characteristics of different highways are notably different. Icing characteristics of different sections in the same highway are also various; Road icing primarily occurs in north and east Beijing, especially around Xiaotangshanxiqiao, Gujiazhuangqiao, Liudaokouqiao and Dinggezhuangqiao Stations. The icing in December, January and February are more frequent than in November and March. (2) The longer the duration of icing, the fewer the icing frequency. (3) The frequent icing appears at 22:00 in Beijing. (4) Icing on fast lane is more easy than on slow lane mostly. (5) The lower the temperature, the thicker the icing. On the whole, this study will be useful for forecasting and warning of road icing in Beijing.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 811-823 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF5220KB] ( 54 )
824 Geoelectricity response to seasonally frost soil change on the northeast Tibetan Plateau
ZHANG Xin, DU Xuebin, WANG Li
In seasonally frost soil area, geoelectric field monitoring data have an obvious respond to the flowing and freezing water, which can cause dramatic change in resistivity. It also relates to hydrological, meteorological, geological background and other factors surrounding the monitoring site. On the seasonally frost soil area of northeast Tibetan Plateau, there are 12 geoelectric monitoring stations all located in relatively high altitude, which can be divided into Type A (loess stations) and Type B (alpine meadows stations) according to soil type. Through calculation and analysis of geoelectric field and telluric current field in the study area, combined with considering the geological environment, the following conclusions can be drawn:the geoelectric field monitoring values have a sensitive response to environment, which may jump on winter and summer; long period geoelectric field curve may relate to temperature changes surrounding the station; the direction and amplitude of the telluric current vector changes in the process of the soil partly freezing and thawing alternation. The geoelectric field curve in Type A and Type B stations shows seasonal variation, that is their time points of curve raising or downing is different. This phenomenon may be used in monitoring the soil state as well as the spatial and temporal evolution of the seasonally frost soil.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 824-833 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF4136KB] ( 47 )
834 Study of the water and thermal features of Qinghai-Tibet silty clay during freezing and thawing
DU Yaohui, YANG Xiaohua, YANG Yanping
During freezing and thawing, the change features of water and heat significantly affect the frost heave and thermal stability of engineering in cold regions. In this paper, Qinghai-Tibet silty clay was selected to measure the changes of water content and temperature through time domain reflectometry method (TDR) with various initial water content. the differences in the change in water content and temperature during freezing and thawing have been compared. Furthermore, three calculation models were used to calculate the unfrozen water contents of soil samples with various initial water content at the temperature below freeze point. The results showed that the changes of water content and temperature can be divided into three stages according to the change features. The features in freezing is little different from those in the thawing. Except for the environmental factors and probe defect influence, these differences may be ascribed to hysteretic effect of unfrozen water during freezing and thawing. In the process of rapid freezing and thawing, the change trend of unfrozen water content with temperature exhibits a gradual change. Comparison of the three calculation models on unfrozen water content shows that the calculation results of fitted equation has higher validity.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 834-841 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1331KB] ( 54 )
842 Deformation failure mechanism in tensile test on remolded loess from Jiuzhou, Lanzhou
WU Xuyang, LIANG Qingguo, NIU Fujun, LI Guoyu
The failure characteristics and patterns of loess under unconfined compress were studied on the remolded loess with different dry densities and water contents. The results indicated that the tensile failure of loess can be classified into four types:Type I with high density and low water content (dry density more than 1.65 g·cm-3 and water content less than 15%), with tensile strength between 8 and 12 kPa; Type Ⅱ with low density and low water content (dry density less than 1.60 g·cm-3 and water content less than 15%), with tensile strength between 4 and 8 kPa; Type Ⅲ with high density and high water content (dry density more than 1.65 g·cm-3 and water content more than 17%), with tensile strength between 4 and 8 kPa; Type IV with low density and high water content (dry density less than 1.60 g·cm-3 and water content more than 17%), with tensile strength between 3 and 4 kPa. Among the four types, Type I and Type Ⅱ had brittle failure, and Type Ⅲ and Type IV had plastic failure. The remolded loess exhibited the weakest resistance to deformation at water content of 15%. Compared with the tensile strengths of yellow clay, red clay and expansive soil under the condition of optimum water content and the same dry density, loess has the minimum tensile strength. In addition, the water holding capacity of clay was much more than that of loess. This research would be helpful to understand strength characteristics of loess.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 842-849 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2390KB] ( 47 )
850 Study of the mechanical properties of stabilized soil containing PPF under freezing and thawing cycles
LIU Yutong, YANG Lin
In order to study the mechanical properties of stabilized soil under freezing and thawing cycles, in this paper, low-dose cement lime stabilized soil that reinforced with a kind of domestic soil curing agent (TG curing agent) is taken as the object of research, the mechanical properties of the soils with different compaction degree and polypropylene fiber (PPF) content were studied by unconfined compressive strength test, splitting strength test and compressive resilience modulus test before and after freezing-thawing cycles. The results show that the compressive strength, the splitting strength and the compressive resilience modulus of the stabilized soil decrease with freezing-thawing cycles, and after six cycles, the loss rate of strength and modulus were basically stable. Before and after freezing-thawing cycles, the compressive strength, splitting strength, compressive modulus of resilience, residual percentage of strength and modulus of the stabilized soil increased with compaction degree and PPF content. Combined with the actual situation of the engineering practice, the freezing and thawing experiment was carried out with 95% compaction degree and 0.2% PPF comprehensive stability soil and obtained the residual ratio of the compressive strength of 59.32% and the rate of mass change of 6.28% only. This study shows that the stabilized soil containing PPF has excellent stability against freezing and can be used as the base material of pavement.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 850-857 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2006KB] ( 56 )
858 Discrete element analysis of cemented behavior of frozen loess under different confining pressures
YIN Nan, LI Shuangyang, SHI Yehui, SUN Zhizhong, YIN Zhenhua
The cementation of ice makes a significant impact on mechanical properties of the frozen soil, so a bonding model which is effective in a limited range is used to simulate this cementation. Based on three-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) of particle flow code, a numerical research on cemented behavior of frozen loess under different confining pressures is carried out. The results show that simulated stress-strain relationships agree well with experimental data. Particle stiffness, parallel bond stiffness and strength all linearly increase with confining pressures, but friction coefficient shows an opposite tendency. Contact force chains, displacements and porosities exhibit a unity with the response of confining pressures. Meanwhile, the relationship is also analyzed between response of microscopic changes and macroscopic mechanical behavior under the effect of ice cementation. These studies will play an active role in application of DEM to frozen soil field.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 858-867 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF4546KB] ( 58 )
868 Recent research progress and prospect of frozen soil dynamics
CHEN Dun, MA Wei, ZHAO Shuping, MU Yanhu
The Belt and Road initiative will bring extensive expansion of the transportation engineering in cold regions. To ensure the stability of these engineering infrastructures under dynamic load, the dynamics of frozen soil needs further systematic study. The dynamics of frozen soil involves the strength, deformation and stability of frozen soil under dynamic loading. Through literature reviewing, recent achievements and progress of the dynamics of frozen soil, including the dynamic parameters, dynamic strength and dynamic stress-strain relationship, dynamic creep and creep model, seismic response characteristics of frozen soil, dynamic response of pile foundation within frozen soil, dynamic response of frozen soil roadbed under railway, are summarized. Finally, future development tendency of the dynamics of frozen soil is prospected based on the review.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 868-883 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF590KB] ( 107 )
884 Water and sediment evolution in a small watershed:the headwaters of the Weihe River
HUANG Weidong, NIU Zuirong, LI Jisheng, WANG Yusen
Based on the hydrological data from the headwaters of the Weihe River, the annual and inter-annual variations of the hydrological elements were analyzed. It is found that precipitation, runoff and sediment in the basin is mainly concentrated in the flood season, such as precipitation from May to September accounts for 78.5% of annual precipitation, runoff from May to October accounts for 78.7% of annual runoff and sediment discharge from May to August accounts for 88.9% of annual sediment discharge. Human activities, such as reservoir construction and soil and water conservation in the upstream, resulted in decrease of runoff and sediment runoff 5.9% in 1997-2013 as compared with that in 1980-1996. Precipitation, runoff and sediment runoff in the basin change from year to year with an overall trend of decrease and some jumps in 1995, 1994 and 1997. Models of annual precipitation, annual runoff depth, and P+Pa for the basin are established, of which the correlation coefficients reach 0.902 and 0.860. Based on annual maximum flood parameters, models of basin annual runoff, annual sediment runoff and P+Pa were established, respectively, of which the correlation coefficients were 0.835 and 0.917. The simulation values are close to the measured values, with a small error, showing the simulated results can be used as an important base to calculate sediment from runoff. Through qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing the influence of human activities on basin runoff and sediment, one can see that this study is helpful for the regional struggle against drought, flood and disasters, for water resources management, watershed management and ecological environment protection.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 884-891 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2110KB] ( 54 )
892 Study of snowmelt runoff simulation in arid regions:progress and prospect
XIANG Yanyun, WANG Zhicheng, ZHANG Hui, CHEN Yaning
The snowmelt runoff simulation is a hot issue in the study of hydrology and water resources in arid regions. It is very important for the snowmelt flood risk assessment and the basin water resources management. Based on literature search and data analysis, the characteristics and development of snowmelt runoff models are discussed, and the application of different snowmelt runoff models in some typical river basins in arid regions are compared. The function and advantages/disadvantages of various models are evaluated. It is proposed that the future snowmelt runoff simulation should pay more attention to data resolution, and more accurate snow information can be obtained by multi-source remote sensing data driving. Under the more easily available data and the improvement of data accuracy, a spatially distributed snowmelt runoff simulation will be more based on energy balance. In order to improve the accuracy of snowmelt runoff simulation, the construction of the model should fully consider the change of parameters caused by climate warming. The model should be constructed with the consideration of the change of other parameters caused by climate warming and accurately describing the process of snow melting to improve the simulation accuracy of snowmelt runoff.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 892-901 [Abstract] ( 14 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF460KB] ( 85 )
902 Chinese skiing-tourism destination:spatial patterns, existing problems and development countermeasures
WANG Shijin, XU Xinwu, DENG Jie, ZHOU Lanyue
Compared with the developed skiing countries, such as Switzerland, France, Austria, the U.S. and Japan, etc., Chinese skiing-tourism has started late and developed slowly; penetration rate of skiing has been relatively low, the consciousness of ski and sport has been relatively weak, and the skiing-tourism markets and industrialization is still in an initial stage. Comparison with unlimited potential of snow cover resources, Chinese skiing industry has not been developed well, and the potential of skiing-tourism economy has not fully excavated. Based on above reasons, in this study, spatial pattern of Chinese skiing-tourism destination is analyzed systematically. Some main problems in spatial planning of skiing-tourism spots and in the process of ski spot construction and management are discussed. Finally, several safeguard mechanisms are put forward to deal with these problems. It is believed that this study has a certain theoretical significance for scientifically guiding Chinese skiing-tourism to develop healthfully and sustainably.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 902-909 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1702KB] ( 62 )
910 Analysis framework of sustainable consumption based on IHPACT:take the low water consumption pattern in Zhangye Prefecture in the perspective of water footprint as a case
SHANG Haiyang, DING Yang
"Low-carbon" has been the topical focus of global attention and becomes a common view in society at large, while the water crisis, that is one of the most severe questions of reality human facing in 21st century, compels us to pay close attention to the low water problems as soon as possible. Population growth, technological change and increased consumption are considered to be the three most important reasons generating environmental crisis. The environmental problems caused by consumption do not get enough attention and in-depth study at present. Classical IPAT built the identical equation of accounts, which is about the influencing relationship between humanity factor and environmental implication. According to extending IPAT equation, in this paper, influence factors are obtained, which are used to analyze influencing sustainable consumption, and direct the IHPACT frame, which is set by sustainable consumption policy. Meanwhile, this feasibility and necessity are discussed of the analysis framework from the perspective of water footprint based on the study and accounting data of Zhangye Prefecture in the Heihe River basin. The research results indicated that decreasing meat consumption, known as water footprint luxury, in food consuming ("eating more vegetables and eating less meat") can effectively adjust residential consumption water footprint; the more enhance of power of consumption will increase residential consumption water footprint. However, Kuznets curve hypothesis about the relation between environmental influence represented by water footprint and power of consumption says that the enhance of power of consumption will finally decrease the environmental influence of consumption.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 910-916 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF517KB] ( 41 )
917 The change and analysis on the ecological service of Shiyang River basin from 1980 to 2010
SU Fang, SHANG Haiyang, ZHANG Zhiqiang
According to the data of remote sensing images of the Shiyang River basin from 1980 through 2010, the change of land use mode in all counties and districts of the basin was analyzed based on GIS technology. The value of the main ecosystem services was assessed, and the watershed ecosystem service value from 1980 through 2010 were analyzed temporally and spatially. The results show that during this period land use change in the basin mainly exhibits in the changes of cultivated land, grassland and unused land. Spatially, the total ecosystem service value is decreasing, with total ecological service value increasing in the downstream and decreasing in the midstream and upstream. The main reason for the increase of ecological service value in the lower reaches is that the ecological protection and restoration measures have achieved remarkable results. River basin of the value of ecosystem services is growing with the expansion of arable land with ecological value services that are not related to the use of land converted to cropland. Meanwhile, in recent years continued basin ecosystem conservation and management measures of recovery has become increasingly effective, increasing the area of forest and grass, watershed ecosystem restoration so that the value of ecosystem services has increased.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 917-925 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2397KB] ( 45 )
926 Analysis of spatial expansion of urban land in the Shiyang River basin
ZHANG Hui, ZHANG Zhiqiang
The Shiyang River basin is one of the key area, of which the economic and social sustainable development needs to pay more attention. In this article, viewing from the perspectives of socio-economic, regional transportation and ecological environment, the land evaluation and prediction of urban spatial expansion are discussed. First, using improved land suitability evaluation method, a high-value area of urban expansion possibility and townships suitable development are identified. It is found that the high-value area is mainly located in the ecological function zone of the central oasis of the basin, which distributes along the G30 expressway and G312 highway, taking the county town as the center. Then, the land transformation model (LTM), which had passed accuracy test, was applied to simulate urban expansion on the basis of the suitability assessment. The results show that there are two development cores, Liangzhou and Jinchuan Districts, and three development belts, G312 highway from Tianzhu to Yongchang, S211 highway from Liangzhou to Minqin, and S212 highway from Yongchang to Jinchuan. It is revealed that the LTM has good efficiency and is useful for simulating urban spatial growth.
2017 Vol. 39 (4): 926-934 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF3112KB] ( 52 )
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