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2017 Vol.39 Issue.2,
Published 2017-04-25

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2017 Vol. 39 (2): 0-0 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF15162KB] ( 144 )
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2017 Vol. 39 (2): 0-0 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1444KB] ( 100 )
229 Status and suggestions on ecological protection and restoration of Qilian Mountains
WANG Tao, GAO Feng, WANG Bao, WANG Penglong, WANG Qinhua, SONG Hualong, YIN Changliang
The ecological protection and management of Qilian Mountains has always been the focus of national, local government and local residents. How to ensure water security and ecological stability in the region are the top priority of current work. This paper points out the existing problems and challenges in the ecological environment protection and restoration of the Qilian Mountains. In view of these problems, this paper puts forward the following suggestions: strengthen the management system mechanism, establish the comprehensive ecological monitoring system, carry out the Ecological Red Line delineation study, speed up the improvement of ecological compensation mechanism, and strengthen the application of ecological restoration technology demonstration recommendations, so that promotes the progess of Gansu Province in ecological protection and management of Qilian Mountains.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 229-234 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF434KB] ( 177 )
235 Separation of precipitation forms based on different methods in Tianshan mountainous area, Northwest China
ZHANG Xueting, LI Xuemei, GAO Pei, LI Qian, TANG Hong
Tianshan mountainous area is located in the alpine region, Northwest China, where solid precipitation plays an important role in total precipitation volume. Separating precipitation into rain and snow is very significant to estimate whether precipitation is available for runoff, soil infiltration and evaporation. And it is also critical for water balance calculation and hydrologic simulation process in alpine regions. Based on daily mean temperature and precipitation labeled with different types from 27 meteorological stations in Tianshan mountainous area during 1950s-1979, combined with altitude, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution of critical temperature (CT) of precipitation transformation using frequency intersection method and threshold temperature (TT) which separate solid from liquid precipitation using probability guarantee method. Then the ratios of snowfall to rainfall from 1980 to 2014 were predicted in this area. The results showed that different stations had different CT values and TT values in a certain temperature range during 1950s-1979. The range of CT values observed in Tianshan mountainous area was found from 1.57 ℃ to 5.70 ℃ while TT values from 1.36 ℃ to 5.48 ℃. As a whole, CT and TT values in the north slope of Tianshan mountainous area were less than that in the south slope. And the ratios of snowfall to rainfall in the north slope were generally larger than that in the south slope. All three of them increased with the rising of altitude. But the altitude was not the only factor which impact the change of TT, and other meteorological factors such as atmospheric pressure, atmospheric humidity may impact on it. It is also shown that CT values based on the frequency intersection method were similar to TT values based on the probability guarantee method. Through an in-depth comparative analysis of the spatial distribution of CT and TT values, this study could provide reference for the selection of parameters in the hydrological modelling in Tianshan mountainous area.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 235-244 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2664KB] ( 113 )
245 Tree-ring recorded of the drought variability in the northwest monsoon marginal, China
ZHANG Fen, CHEN Qiaomei, SU Jiajia, DENG Yang, GAO Linlin, GOU Xiaohua
It is sensitive to climate change that the boundary of the northwest monsoon region as the northern boundary of the Asian summer monsoon. Knowledge of natural drought variability and the mechanism is essential for the development for human society and economy, especially in arid and sub-arid regions. Here we present a new tree-ring chronology from Tulugou, in the eastern Qilian Mountains. The correlation analysis between the tree ring width and meteorological factor showed that tree growth response to the drought in the growing season. And we compared the chronology and the nearby drought reconstructions, and the results showed that persistently drought periods occurred in the 1920s-1930s, 1966, 1974, 1982, 1990s and early 21st century. Multitaper method spectral analysis indicates the existence of significant peaks at 2~4 years, suggesting a possible connection with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The results of the study are agreement with those of Helan Mountains, Qilian Mountains, Xinglong Mountains and Guiqing Mountains, which indicate that these areas may be influenced by the same climatic factors.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 245-251 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF3014KB] ( 100 )
252 Isochronous layer extraction of ice sheet based on shallow ice radar, East Antarctic inland
PAN Yao, DOU Yingke, GUO Jingxue, LANG shinan, PEI Yujing, DING Yunfeng
During the 32nd China Antarctic Expedition, the Travelers first used the shallow ice radar to obtain the shallow ice cover data of 1 300 km from Zhongshan station to Kunlun station. In this paper, through MATLAB to FFT convert, background filtering, change the number of superposition and denoising based on curvelet transform image processing. Using Reflexw to elevation correction, secondary background filtering and smoothing filtering, and the isochronous layers are successfully extracted. Meanwhile the average depth, the maximum depth and the fluctuation of the isochronic layer are obtained. Finally, the data are connected to show the distribution of isochronal layers near the LGB69 ice core and associated with the data of ice core roughly corresponds to the age and event of the corresponding isochronal layer. Also, we show the distribution near Dome A. Which is important to analysis the material accumulation rate along Zhongshan station-Kunlun station in East Antarctica.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 252-258 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF5659KB] ( 79 )
259 A method for extracting snow line altitude based on MODIS snow product
BAO Weijia, LIU Shiyin, WU Kunpeng, WANG Rongjun, JIANG Zongli
The snow line altitude extraction is very important for studying glacier mass balance. A method was presented to calculate the snow line altitude in mountain areas based on MOD10A1 snow product by using the snow cover frequency in the clear-sky days in hydrological years. The fractional snow cover data were used to class the snow line or above snow line pixels. In this paper, snow line altitudes of glaciers in High Mountain Asia at the end of ablation periods between 2000/2001 to 2014/2015 were extracted. The result shows that the extracted snow line attitude time series are very high correlated with the observed annual glacier mass balance series. 75% of mass balance change could be explained by snow line altitude variation. About 61.58% snow line altitude change has significant relationship with summer air temperature or seasonal precipitation in the 30 km grid scale. Finally, the sub-regional snow line altitude time series seems to illuminate that the snow line altitude in the whole High Mountain Asia has changed in recent 15 years. The snow line altitude change has associated with the distribution of atmospheric circulations in high Mountain Asia. The snow line altitude extraction method proposed here could be applied to research glaciers in the other mountains.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 259-272 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF8989KB] ( 77 )
273 Analyzing characteristically on ice fabric and microstructure of Miaoergou glacier top-flatted, East Tianshan
LI Yuan, DU Zhiheng, XIAO Cunde
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 273-280 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF5201KB] ( 87 )
281 A comparison of the formulas for estimation of the lake evaporation on the Tibetan Plateau: taking Lake Nam Co as an example
LU Meimei, ZHOU Shiqiao, HE Xia
Based on the meteorological data from Lake Nam Co during the observation periods of 2012 to 2014, lake evaporation was calculated using nine different empirical formulas of the five groups. The results were compared with the eddy covariance (EC) data, and then the parameters of each formula were optimized. The optimized formulas were further evaluated on their accuracy and applicability. It is shown that the formulas of the Dalton group are the most accurate ones and yet they require daily data of more meteorological elements, which limits its wide application. The formula of the combination group is nearly as accurate as the Dalton's, but it also requires more meteorological elements. The formulas of both the temperature-radiation group and the temperature-daylength group require less meteorological elements, but can acquire estimates with good accuracy. Due to this low cost and high effectiveness, these two groups are considered to be good choices for lake evaporation estimation when conventional meteorological data is only available. The formula of the temperature group was proved to be less accurate. As the monsoon climate is very strong at Lake Nam Co, the parameter optimation for all of the nine formulas was performed separately in terms of monsoon and non-monsoon seasons. Correlations of the conventional meteorological elements were also analyzed between Lake Nam Co and four other weather stations in the surrounding regions (Damxung, Shenzha, Bangor and Nagchu). Of the four meteorological elements, global radiation, air temperature and specific humidity are shown to have good linear relations in between the stations, which suggests that after linear calibration they can be well used in the calculations of lake evaporation without bringing large errors. However, the linear correlation is weak for wind speed.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 281-291 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF3098KB] ( 99 )
292 Past glaciation on the Longmen Shan
ZHOU Shangzhe, WANG Yaohua, XU Liubing, ZHENG Benxing
The Jiuding Shan (4 984 m), as the main range of Longmen Shan and the center high mountain of the Wenchuan Earthquake, present a lot of cirque-hanging valleys of past glaciation on the north slope of the ridge. Based on these glacial landforms, the snowline at the glacial period should be about 4 100 m.We infer that the glaciers developed at MIS-2 from their fresh landforms and the difference of the snowlines between glacial period and present. The contemporary snowline is calculated about 5 000 m high according to the local air temperature and precipitation, just above the top of the Jiuding Shan. So the Jiuding Shan of above 3 800 m is in a periglacial environment today, rock glacier, stone ring, and solifluction lobe developed well. There are no earlier glacial landforms and deposits in Jiuding Shan area, showing the conclusion that the mountains lower than 5 000 m in the east of Tibetan Plateau have glaciations only during the Last Glacial is correct. This is also a new evidence for the quick uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since Late Quaternary.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 292-298 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF7780KB] ( 71 )
299 Study on economic loss assessment and risk division of hail disaster in Xinjiang
SHI Lianmei, LI Bin, LI Yuanyuan, KONG Lingwen, LIU Weiping
Based on the statistical datasets of Hail disaster area, total disaster area, crop planting area, GDP and the hail frequency of Hail for each city in Xinjiang, the hail disaster economic loss index and risk index were constructed, while the hail disaster in Xinjiang were also accessed. The former index could be used in reviewing the changing tendency of hail disaster economic loss, while the latter could indicate the hail disaster risk zone with the virtue of GIS special information processing technology. It is showed that, the hail disaster economic loss generally ascends with great impact from environmental instability, while keeping fine positive correlation with each other. The overall risk of hail disaster in Xinjiang is mainly medium and low risk, followed by high risk. High risk areas are mainly concentrated in the horned valley area Yili and those region that around the vally, that is Akesus and Bozhou. It is suggested to reduce hail damage in these areas by adjusting the structure of agricultural industry and improving the capacity of artificial hail suppression.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 299-307 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2576KB] ( 102 )
308 Advances in tree-ring stable oxygen isotope study in Asia
CHEN Yao, GOU Xiaohua, LIU Wenhuo, CHEN Qiaomei, SU Jiajia, LIN Wei
The oxygen isotope in tree ring, as a proxy of paleoclimatology with high resolution,is develop late but fast in Asia. Stable oxygen isotope ratio (δ18O) of tree ring records strong environment information, and related to moisture cycle closely, which makes it important in studying complex Asian climate. Tree ring δ18O responses to temperature mainly in high latitude region, for middle to low latitude, it records moisture change like precipitation, relative humidity (RH) and PDSI. This study statistics the published correlation analysis results of tree ring δ18O with temperature, precipitation and RH in Asia, it appears that the environment of growing season is crucial to tree ring δ18O, the significant relationship of tree ring δ18O with temperature, precipitation and RH is positive, negative and negative respectively. Temperature and precipitation influence rainfall δ18O thus tree ring δ18O, but their effects varies at difference region; RH is widely recorded in the tree ring δ18O. As the majority of study regions located in middle to low latitude region, most tree ring δ18O series are used to study Asian summer monsoon and ENSO through its relationship with monsoon rainfall; Seasonal resolved tree ring δ18 O studies only carry out in tropical and subtropics area now, but they are meaningful to understand intra-annual climate change and monsoon activity, and make it possible to study species without distinct annual rings.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 308-316 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1994KB] ( 89 )
317 Impacts of hazardous fires on permafrost environment: a review
LI Xiaoying, JIN Huijun, HE Ruixia, HUANG Yadong, LUO Dongliang, JIN Xiaoying, LÜ Lanzhi
Forest fires are affects the boreal forest ecosystem in many aspects. Not only the nutrient cycles and surface water and energy balances, the soil physical and chemical properties, but also the hydrothermal dynamics in the active layer and shallow permafrost soils and subsequent pedogenesis of cryosols and carbon pools, carbon and nitrogen cycles and other biogeochemical processes. Under a warming climate and increasing anthropic activities, the occurrences of the wild and human-induced fires have been more frequent in boreal forest during the last few decades. Previous studies indicate that the wildfire have significant impacts on the hydrothermal processes of soils in the active layer and shallow permafrost layers. They result in irreversible degradation of permafrost, adverse successions of forests, shrub-lands and wetlands, the loss of soil carbon stock, and thermal subsidence and slumping. In addition, it threatens the buildings and other engineered infrastructures on permafrost terrains. In this paper, the impacts of forest fires on permafrost environment are reviwed. The research on the forest fires and permafrost are mainly short-time, small-scale, qualitative descriptions and inference, it lacks of quantitative analysis and systematic evaluation for a long-term impact of forest fires on permafrost environment are grossly inadequate. In particular, in the Da Xing'anling (Hinggan) Mountain, there were few related studies in the early 90s, although there are scattered reports since. Up to date, long-term and systematic field observations, laboratory testing and numerical simulations are very limited, and the cutting-edge research for and management practice in fires on boreal forests and permafrost should be further conducted and developed. Using the method of evaluating the temporal changes by measuring changes in different stages at various sites, the long- and short-term field investigations in combination with laboratory model testing and numerical model simulations, the future studies per se can quantitatively assess the changes in hydrothermal conditions, processes and mechanisms of the active layer and shallow permafrost after forest fires. The results of these studies may provide important scientific basis for and visionary insights tological assessment of the impacts of fires on boreal forests and wetlands, cold regions environmental restoration and management, and the research of shallow carbon pool at mid- and high latitudes.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 317-327 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF758KB] ( 92 )
328 Numerical simulation of influence of thermokarst lake horizontal expansion rate on talik development beneath thermokarst lakes on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
LING Feng, WU Qingbai
Thermokarst lakes are an important sight of the high-latitude and high-altitude landscapes where ice-rich permafrost exists. These lakes form as a result of thawing of ice-rich permafrost or thawing of massive ground ice, and expand their basins by conduction of heat from lake water into adjacent permafrost. In this study, the talik development processes beneath thermokarst lakes with different lake horizontal expansion rates are investigated by using a heat transfer model with phase change under a cylindrical coordinate system, on the basis of the thermokarst lake information and the observed permafrost data from a monitoring project in the Beiluhe Basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The numerical simulation results indicate that the open taliks form beneath the thermokarst lakes with the horizontal expansion rates of 0.10 m·a-1, 0.15 m·a-1, 0.20 m·a-1, and 0.25 m·a-1 respectively in years 760, 703, 671, and 652 in the Beiluhe Basin on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where permafrost thickness is about 75 m, and the corresponding mean permafrost top thaw rates are 8.22 cm·a-1, 8.89 cm·a-1, 9.31 cm·a-1, and 9.74 cm·a-1, respectively. The horizontal expansion rates of thermokarst lakes have an important influence on talik development and ground thermal regime. Choosing a correct horizontal expansion rate of a thermokarst lake based on the field measurement data is an essential prerequisite for numerical simulation of the influence of thermokarst lakes on permafrost thermal regime.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 328-335 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1438KB] ( 76 )
336 Study on the temperature boundary of embankment and its calculation model of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway in permafrost area
YI Xin, HU Da, YU Wenbing, LIU Weibo
The temperature, which is the most important boundary condition for continuous action,is very close to the evaluation of thermal stability. Based on the observation data of the surface temperature (5 cm) in different section along Qinghai-Tibet engineering corridor, boundary temperature characteristics are analyzed in the paper. According to the results, Thetemperature differences between north-faced and south-faced slope are 5.81 ℃, 5.68 ℃ and 1.38 ℃ with roadbed trends of W8° S, W34°S and W86° S, respectively, which indicating that there exist temperature differences between the north-faced and south-faced slope of the highway regardless of roadbed trend. Hence, the subgrade must take different designs on both sides of the embankment to reduce the asymmetry of temperature. Furthermore, based on retrieving the ground surface temperature by the surface absorption radiation, a simplified calculation model of engineering temperature boundary is proposed, which shows a good agreement with observation data and it can provide important boundary conditions for numerical simulation.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 336-342 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2297KB] ( 65 )
343 Experimental study on thermal conductivity of soil with gravel on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
HE Yujie, YI Shuhua, GUO Xinlei
Soil thermal conductivity is one of the important soil physical parameters and important input parameters of land surface model, which has important implications for the study of soil heat transfer and hydro-thermal coupling movement. Widely used parameterization schemes of soil water and thermal properties only considered the sandy soil, silt and clay. However, soils of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) contain large amount of gravel, which may have different thermal properties. At the current stage, few models simulate the effect of gravel on permafrost dynamcis and alpine grassland on the QTP. In this study, we used the thermal conductivity meter (KD2 Pro, DECAGON, USA) measured soil thermal conductivity of soil samples from the Maduo and Beiluhe on the QTP under different combination of water conditions and thermal states, and analyzed the effects of gravel content on soil porosity and thermal conductivity. Results showed: (1) when moisture content was above a certain threshold value, thermal conductivity in the frozen state is higher than that of unfrozen state; (2) soil moisture content had great influence on soil thermal conductivity; thermal conductivity increased with the increase of water content, as well as it had a sharp increase in the range of less water content; (3) when gravel content in soil sample was larger, soil porosity was smaller and soil thermal conductivity was higher in the frozen state. The results suggested that gravel has a remarkable influence on soil thermal conductivity, and it is necessary to consider the impact of gravel on the soil thermal properties, so as to improve the accuracy of hydrothermal condition simulation in the future.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 343-350 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2596KB] ( 70 )
351 Failure modes of fractured rock masses under freeze-thaw action and load
LU Yani, LI Xinping, WU Xinghong
Taking fractured rock masses as the research object, using rock-like materials produced rock specimens with different geometric characteristics, freeze-thaw experiments and uniaxial compression tests of fractured rock samples have been carried out to investigate the influence of different crack dip angle, crack length, crack number and freezing-thawing cycles on the damage failure modes. The results of the experiments demonstrated that the existence of joint and freezing-thawing cycles have much effect on the damage failure modes. Rock rupture degree becomes more and more serious, and failure modes are becoming more and more complicated with the increase of freeze-thaw cycles; Failure modes of the fractured rock masses are different between single crack and double cracks. Tensile fracture modes often appear when the fissure angle is 30 degrees, mixed modes (shear and compression) take on when the fissure angle is 60 degrees, failure modes present splitting failure when the fissure angle is 90 degrees. The surface of specimens makes more compression cracks besides principal tensile crack with increasing crack length. The above research conclusions can provide valuable references to the constructions and safety operation.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 351-357 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF3242KB] ( 76 )
358 Research on freeze-thaw damage characteristics of asphalt mixture considering load action
ZHANG Qian, LI Ze, WEN Zhiguang, YANG Yonghong
In the light of the freeze-thaw and loading damage problem of asphalt pavement in cold areas, by means of meso-damage mechanics and macroscopic statistical stochastic damage model, the damage constitutive relation and damage evolution equation of asphalt mixture under coupling action of freeze-thaw and loading are established. The damage degradation mechanism of freeze-thaw and loading asphalt mixture under the influence of freeze-thaw cycles, strain and asphalt aggregate ratio are discussed. It is shown that the fatigue damage accumulation of freeze-thaw cycling and the stress concentration caused by loading, which acted on the coarse aggregate interface that carrying micro defects aggravated the total damage degradation of asphalt mixture. The damage degree does not changes greatly and tends to be constant gradually after 20 cycles, but the strain value decreases with an increasing of freeze-thaw cycles under the same damage degree. The asphalt aggregate ratio has a significant impact on total damage degree, it gives priority to freeze-thaw damage when asphalt aggregate ratio is relatively small, whereas the damage mainly caused by load when it is larger. The research results can provide a reference for asphalt pavement anti-freezing design, the performance evaluation and the selection of maintenance time in cold regions.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 358-365 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1820KB] ( 71 )
366 Numerical analysis of tunnel temperature field in seasonal frozen regions
DU Yaohui, YANG Xiaohua, YAN Changgen
To completely solve the problem of freeze injury to tunnels in cold regions, taking a tunnel in the Qilian Mountains as a case, the freeze-proofing measures with insulation layer and active auxiliary-heat were numerical simulated by using ANSYS. It is revealed that the maximum frozen time of surrounding rock will be delayed by one month as compared with the outside minimum air temperature. After about 5-year operation, the effect of insulation layer will begin to decline, and the surrounding rock temperature will begin to negative again. Installing an electric heat tracing system can completely solve the problem of freeze injury to tunnel in this case, with a heating time of 80 days and a heating power of 125 W·m-2. The annual consumption of electrical energy is 10 000 W·d·m-2. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation. This research results can provide theoretical basis for insulation and freeze-proofing of tunnels and is useful for similar engineering in cold regions.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 366-374 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF5675KB] ( 61 )
375 Development of hydrological model considering the coal mined-out area special underlying surface and its application in small basins of Shanxi Province
WEN Lei, LIU Changjun, YU Congrong, ZHOU Jian, ZHANG Shunfu
Along with the rapid economic development of China, and the increasing energy demand, the volume of coal mining in Shanxi Province, that is the most important coal mining area of China, is growing rapidly. Due to the longtime irrational and unscientific coal mining activity, coal mined-out area and associated surface fissure appeared in many areas of Shanxi Province. At the meantime, watershed hydrological observation data showed that the channeled runoff decreased obviously and the stored water volume in reservoirs declined as well. It is important and meaningful to develop a hydrological model considering the impact of the coal mined-out area special underlying surface, based on the knowledge of the impact of human activity as coal mining on hydrological process. This study collected the information of coal mining production, remote sensing and hydrological data in several typical small basin. After thorough investigation and analysis, it was found that the coal mined area could enhance the surface preferential flow in the overland flow through the associated fissure and collapse, as well as lead to obvious leakage in the river channels. Based on the knowledge of the impact of coal mined-out area on hydrological process, the study developed a hydrological model considering the coal-mining area special underlying surface, and carried out model verification and application research in Luzhuang basin in Shanxi Province. The approach used in this study has certain reference significance for research related to the human activity impact on hydrological process, and the developed model can be expanded to the hydrological analysis and prediction in areas with similar hydrological process which is significantly influenced by irrational coal mining activity.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 375-383 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF8607KB] ( 49 )
384 Coupling SWAT and RIEMS to simulate mountainous runoff in the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin
RUAN Hongwei, ZOU Songbing, LU Zhixiang, YANG Dawen, XIONG Zhe, YIN Zhenliang
Weather stations are scarce and unevenly distributed in the inland river basins of northwest China, which limits the application of hydrological simulation. A high-resolution regional climate model can export accurate climate data to improve the weather-driven data of a hydrological model. Therefore, coupling a climate model and a hydrological model is necessary to quantify water resources in inland river basins. In this study, we selected the mountainous region in the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin (HRB) as the study area to simulate the monthly runoff process from 1995 to 2010 by coupling the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model and the Regional Integrated Environmental Model System (RIEMS) climate model. We studied the optimization scheme for the weather-driven data and the suitability of the coupling of the climate and hydrological models. The data exported by RIEMS exhibited high accuracy. The correlation coefficients of precipitation, temperature, humidity, and wind speed were all higher than 0.80 and achieved a significance level of 1%. Spatial and temporal resolution reached 6 h and 3 km, respectively. Virtual weather stations built to compensate for the shortage of climate stations, which were scarce and unevenly distributed in the study area, optimized the weather-driven data from SWAT. A model calibration method was adopted using multi-temporal scales, multiple variables, and multiple sites that incorporated the natural characteristics of the basin. Results showed that the simulation values were close to the observation values. The Nash Sutcliffe efficiency was higher than 0.64, the percent bias was controlled within 20%, and the determination coefficient value was higher than 0.70. Runoff simulation demonstrated good performance during dry seasons, but failed to provide accurate results during wet seasons for some of the years because of high precipitation from RIEMS. Thus, the simulation capability of RIEMS and the model coupling method still require further improvement. Overall, the coupling of SWAT and RIEMS was suitable for simulating mountainous runoff in the upper reaches of HRB. The model can accurately describe the hydrological processes of the basin. The results can provide references for forecasting and managing the water resources of the basin.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 384-394 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF3824KB] ( 97 )
395 Impacts of climate and land use changes on runoff in the Lianshui basin
FENG Chang, MAO Dehua, ZHOU Hui, CAO Yanmin, HU Guangwei
Three land utilization data sets of 1990, 2000 and 2010 in the Lianshui basin have been chosen, and meteorological data from 1985 through 2014 have been divided into 1985-1994, 1995-2004 and 2005-2014 meteorological background phases, which is convenient to set up seven combination simulation scenarios applied in the paper. SWAT, a distributed runoff model, is used to simulate runoff in different scenarios. The purpose of this paper is to study how the climate, land-utilization and land-cover changes in the Lianshui basin affects the runoff in the basin. PSO algorithm is used to calibrate model parameters by Kling-Gupta efficiency coefficient (KGE), as well as by observed data in Xiangxiang station. Furthermore, p-factor, r-factor, correlation coefficient (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS) and Percent bias (PBIAS) are selected to evaluate the uncertainty and accuracy of the simulation. The evaluation results indicated that the simulated accuracy and uncertainty, under different land utilization scenarios, were credible both in the calibration and validation phases. Consequently, by analytic comparison of the simulated values in different scenarios, it is clear that during 1985 to 2014, climate change had decreased basin runoff while land utilization change had increased basin runoff, but annual total runoff depth had decreased on the whole. Climate change had influenced the surface hydrology more significantly than land utilization change, thereby the contribution rate of climate change increased from 71.4% to 86.3%. At the same time, the contribution rate of land utilization change decreased from 28.6% to 13.7%. Therefore, under the background of local climate change, optimizing the spatial structure of land resources is one of the ways to scientific management of water resources in the basin.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 395-406 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF3620KB] ( 70 )
407 Hydrochemical characteristics and controlling factors at Pailugou catchment in the central Qilian Mountains
FENG Fang, FENG Qi, LIU Xiande, LIU Wei, JIN Shuang
The aim of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and controlling factors of Pailugou catchment in the Central Qilian Mountains. One-year continuous precipitation and runoff samples were analyzed for major cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, and K+) and anions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl- and HCO3-), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The results revealed that Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the dominant cations, and HCO3- was the dominant anion in runoff. While the anions and cations in precipitation were dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3-, respectively. The wide water-rock interaction and chemical denudation of mineral solutes resulted in higher solute concentration in stream. The average TDS of runoff was 255.50 mg·L-1, which was much higher than that of precipitation (46.77 mg·L-1). The average pH value in runoff was alkaline, while in precipitation was close to neutral. All of the runoff samples fall within the mid-left side of Gibbs distribution graph, indicating that the major origin of ions in runoff was the weathering of rocks. Based on the piper trilinear nomograph and the major ion molar concentration ratios, this paper further explored that the main processes controlling the water chemistry were mainly by chemical weathering of carbonate rock, partially by sulfate weathering and silicate weathering in rocks. Based on seawater correction approach, the contribution proportion of local precipitation to the solute of runoff at the Pailugou catchment was 4.58%.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 407-415 [Abstract] ( 8 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2666KB] ( 79 )
416 Calculation of dominant discharge with its characteristics in the river channel section of the lower Yangtze River at Zhenjiang
XU Lingling, ZHEN Feng, JIANG Hongying
As the key influential factor on forming the river channel geomorphology, the dominant discharge is one of the main variables in hydro-calculations for designing water conservancies. In this study, we analyzed in detail several main formulas for dominant discharge calculation. Values based on the formulas were computed based on the measured series of the river channel Section of the lower Yangtze River at Zhenjiang. The results of the comparison show that the Makovieve method is more suitable for the calculation of the bed flow in Zhenjiang section. Based on the results of the study, the empirical method of establishing bed flow in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River is established, accuracy analysis shows that the empirical method has high accuracy.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 416-420 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2044KB] ( 55 )
421 The seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in permafrost area and seasonally frozen ground area of the Maxian Mountain
LI Hongqin, XU Haiyan, MA Xiaoliang, HU Guanglu, WU Xiaodong, LIU Guimin
To investigate the differences of seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities between permafrost areas and seasonally frozen ground areas, the permafrost area, seasonally frozen ground area and their junctional zone in the Maxian Mountain were selected as an investigating object. The invertase, urease, neutral phosphatase, amylase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase activities, as well as the microbial biomass C and N in the depth range from 0 to 30 cm were analyzed. Correlation analyses demonstrated that there were significant correlations among total nitrogen, total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and soil enzyme activity. The highest values of microbial C and N appeared in the depth range of 0~10 cm, followed by 10~20 cm, with the lowest depth range of 20~30 cm. During the growing season, the microbial C and N were increasing, while the microbial C and N showed no significant differences among the three areas. The enzyme activities showed similar patterns as those of microbial C and N at various depths. There were no clear seasonal patterns of the enzyme activities. In permafrost area, the invertase, neutral phosphatase and polyphenol oxidase activities were significantly higher than those of seasonally frozen ground. It was clear that although there were great differences in ecosystems, such as vegetation cover and soil organic matter content, the microbial C and N among in the permafrost area and non-permafrost area were comparable. In addition, the soil enzyme activity showed some similarity between permafrost and non-permafrost areas, indicating that the biogeochemical cycle was intensified more in non-permafrost regions. These results suggested that the permafrost degradation would lead to ecosystem degradation.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 421-428 [Abstract] ( 7 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF2616KB] ( 65 )
429 A study on spatial distribution pattern of seed rain and seed germination characteristics of endangered plant Amygdalus mongolica
WANG Jin, YAN Xia, LI Junyuan, ZHANG Yong, XIE Quangang, LI Gang, GU Wenhao
In this article, the Amygdalus mongolica population and seeds are taken as the research object to explore its endangered factors based on the study on its physical properties and characteristics in dormancy and germination . The results showed that Amygdalus mongolica seed has large volume, heavy specific weight and grain big. It spreads in a rather aggregative pattern, which mainly relies on its own gravity, animal and water, so it could spread much further. The main factors that restrict seed germination are seed coat barriers and physiological dormancy (accounting for about 10 percent). The physiological dormancy of the seed may be stopped by peeling mechanically after 72-hours exposure in 35 ℃. Seed stratification in low temperature (2-5 ℃) will effectively improve its vitality. Meanwhile, seeds thermocline (5-10 ℃) will increase its germination rate. However, seed germination is not sensitive to light. The dormancy term of Amygdalus mongolica seed is quite short and seed germination could happen in low temperature, so the seed put into soil library before the winter would germinate quickly and die in the chilly winter, which makes Amygdalus mongolica become an endangered species. However, the seed putting into soil library during frozen period can survive and has a high seedling rate due to the protection of seed coat. In summary, it is proved that artificial breeding is the most effective measure to rescue Amygdalus mongolica from extinction.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 429-434 [Abstract] ( 6 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF629KB] ( 71 )
435 Evaluation of climate suitability for urban human settlement in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
CAO Weihong, WANG Shuxin
Cities gathered in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and regional population is more than 100 million. The regional distribution differences of population are obvious and exit the situation of maldistribution. There has already formed Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding as the population centers. Currently under the planning of coordinated development among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province, city has to face population flowing into others and outflow in the industrial structure adjustment. Climate suitability of urban human settlement will affect population redistribution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Evaluation of nature suitability for human settlement is on important premise to spatial distribution and optimization of population, including climate comfort is an important evaluation factors. Based on climate data in the past 63 years (1951-2013), this paper evaluates the climate suitability for urban human settlement of 13 main cities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, divides the grades of fitness and periodic distribution and analyze the characteristics of climatic environment using the method of THI (temperature humidity index) and K (wind effect index). The calculation results are analyzed comparably, which show that: 1) The average length of climate suitable duration was 7.62 months and unsuitable duration was 4.38 months. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was considered as comfort living climate regions. 2) Most people feeled comfortable in April, may, September and October, and uncomfortable in January, July and August. This indicates that the spring and autumn were suitable periods, and the annual distribution of climate comfort appears "M" type. 3) There were common distinguishing climatic features in these 13 cities. Besides distinctive seasons, long summers and winters, short springs and autumns, wet and dry season clearly and etc., cold dry winter cities have hot summer with heavy falls of rain which is precipitation concentration period. However, the temperature, precipitation, wind speed and other meteorological elements had significant differences, as well as the annual distribution of climate comfortable period. 4) The spatial heterogeneity of climate types is strong, which is demonstrated as follows: the comfort degree showed a decreasing tendency from northeast to southwest. Cities in Hebei province were more comfortable than Tianjin as for Climate suitability, whereas Qinhuangdao, Tangshan, Langfang, Handan were more comfortable than Beijing. The sorting of annual climate comfort degree is as following: Qinhuangdao > Tangshan > Langfang, Handan, Beijing > Chengde > Zhangjiakou > Shijiazhuang, Xingtai, Baoding, Hengshui > Cangzhou, Tianjin. On the premise of coordinated development among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province and positively interacting with one another, the climatic characteristics is helpful to distribute crowded population into cities in addition to Beijing and Tianjin, so as to solve "great urban disease", guiding the crowded population distribution reasonably. These results could provide scientific basis and decision reference for the research of functional partition of population development in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 435-442 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF3658KB] ( 106 )
443 Characteristics of urban spatial expansion and its driving factors in Korla City
Bumairiyemu Maimaiti, DING Jianli, Zibibula Simayi, Alimujiang Kasimu
Based on the LandsatTM/ETM+ imagery data of Korla City in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, the urban land was classified by using of supervised classification method in ENVI 4.5 software and spatial analysis was employed by using of ArcGIS 10.1 software. The spatial-temporal changes of land use mode, urban expansion trend and evolution process, the shifting directions of urban center of gravity and its moving distance and extend pattern features of urban expansion were analyzed. The result indicates: 1) Over the past 25 years, the area and proportion of construction land were substantially increased, annual average growth rate was 15.18%. 2) Farmland and unused land contributed greatly to urban expansion. 3) City extended to southeast, city gravity center shifted to the southeast about 2 118.46 meters. 4)Urban compactness trend to decrease and fractal dimension index trend to increase, this indicated the spatial structure of city is losing and becoming more complex and unstable. Based on the above features and extension trends, this study analyzed the driving factors of urban spatial expansion and puts forward some suggestions and provides scientific bases for sustainable development of Korla City.
2017 Vol. 39 (2): 443-452 [Abstract] ( 9 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF4689KB] ( 65 )
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2017 Vol. 39 (2): 453-454 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF1672KB] ( 76 )
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