1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000; 2. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science and Cooperative Research Programs, Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO 65101, USA; 3. National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 4. 兰州大学 西部环境与气候变化研究院, 甘肃 兰州 730000; 5. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO 80309, USA; 6. 中国科学院 青藏高原研究所 环境变化与地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100085
Advancement of Cold-Region Hydrology Studies over Last the Two Decades in China——In Memorial of Outstanding Cold-Region Hydrologist, Dr. YE Baisheng, for his Scientific Achievements and Innovative Contributions
DING Yong-jian1, LIU Shi-yin1, LIU Feng-jing2, YANG Da-qing3, ZHANG Ting-jun4,5, ZHAO Lin1, SHEN Yong-ping1, YANG Kun6, ZHANG Shi-qiang1
1. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China; 2. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science and Cooperative Research Programs, Lincoln University, Jefferson City, MO 65101, USA; 3. National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 4. Research School of Arid Environment and Climate Change, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China; 5. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO 80309, USA; 6. Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China
Dr. YE Baisheng, an outstanding cold-region hydrologist, lost his life by a car accident in August 2012 during a field expedition on Tibetan Plateau. To remember his innovative contributions to advancement of cold region hydrology in China, we present in this report some of his original studies, mainly including his achievements in glacial hydrology, permafrost hydrology, and regional- and basin-scale hydrology, and climate change. In glacial hydrology studies, Dr. YE demonstrated that glacier coverage plays a critical role in regulating streamflow regime with a threshold value of 10% glacier coverage within a catchment. He found that runoff coefficients of variation (CV) become relatively independent on glacial coverage when the threshold value is greater than 10% within the catchment. Dr. YE developed a glacial dynamic model to simulate changes in alpine glaciers and their contributions to runoff in response to climate change. Using this dynamic model, Dr. YE found that as climate warms and glaciers retreat, glacier runoff trends firstly to increase and then decrease, with the runoff peak and timing depending not only on glacier sizes but also on the rate of air temperature rise. In permafrost hydrology studies, he and collaborators found a significant positive relationship between monthly mean maximum/minimum discharge ratio and basin permafrost coverage at high latitudes. Their results show that permafrost does not significantly affect streamflow regime in regions with permafrost coverage of <40%, while permafrost has a strongly impact on discharge regime for regions with permafrost coverage of >60%. Dr. YE and his collaborators found that the upper streams of the Lena River in Siberia, without much human impact, experience a runoff increase in winter, spring, and (particularly) summer seasons and a discharge decrease in autumn. This result suggested a hydrologic regime shift toward early snowmelt and higher summer streamflow probably due to regional climate warming and permafrost degradation in the southern Siberia. Dr. YE systematically corrected biases and mis-catchments in precipitation measurements over the past four to five decades for more than 700 precipitation gages/stations in China. Using the corrected precipitation data, he and collaborators found a statistically significant negative correlation of annual discharges between the Xinjiang Regions and the upper reaches of the Yellow River at the decadal scale. They further suggested that the discharge/precipitation variations in the upper reaches of the Yellow River are dominated by the East Asian summer monsoon, while their variations in Xinjiang are affected by both the west wind and East Asian summer monsoon. This finding highlighted the need to re-examine the causes of significant river flow decrease of the Yellow River. Dr. YE's scientific achievements and contributions have significantly improved our knowledge in the cold region hydrologic processes and enhanced our capability in predicting streamflow regime changes in response to climate change over the cold regions.
LIU Feng-jing etc
.Advancement of Cold-Region Hydrology Studies over Last the Two Decades in China——In Memorial of Outstanding Cold-Region Hydrologist, Dr. YE Baisheng, for his Scientific Achievements and Innovative Contributions[J] JOURNAL OF GLACIOLOGY AND GEOCRYOLOGY, 2012,V34(5): 1009-1022
Ye Baisheng, Han Tianding, Ding Yongjian. Some changing characteristics of glacier streamflow in Northwest China[J]. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 1999, 21(1): 54-58. [叶柏生, 韩添丁, 丁永建. 西北地区冰川径流变化的某些特征[J].冰川冻土, 1999, 21(1): 54-58.]
Ye Baisheng, Ding Yongjian, Jiao Keqin, et al. The response of river discharge to climate warming in cold region over China[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2012, 32(1): 103-110. [叶柏生, 丁永建, 焦克勤, 等. 我国寒区径流对气候变暖的响应[J]. 第四纪研究, 2012, 32(1): 103-110.]
Ye Baisheng, Chen Kegong, Shi Yafeng. A model simulating the processes in responses of glacier and runoff to climate change[J]. Chinese Geographic Sciences, 1997, 7(3): 243-250. [叶柏生, 陈克恭, 施雅风. 冰川及其径流对气候变化响应过程的模拟模型——以乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川为例[J]. 地理科学, 1997, 17(1): 32-40.]
Ye Baisheng, Ding Yongjian, Liu Fengjing, et al. Responses of various-sized alpine glaciers and runoff to climate change[J]. Journal of Glaciology, 2003, 49: 1-7.
Ye B S, Yang D Q, Jiao K Q, et al. The Urumqi River source Glacier No.1, Tianshan, China: Changes over the past 45 years[J]. Geophysical Research Letters, 2005, 32, L21504. DOI: 10.1029/2005GL024178.
Zhao Qiudong, Ye Baisheng, Ding Yongjian, et al. Simulation and analysis of river runoff in typical cold regions[J]. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 2011, 3(6): 498-508. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1226.2011.00498.
Zhao Qiudong, Ye Baisheng, Ding Yongjian, et al. Coupling a glacier melt model to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model for hydrological modeling[J]. Environmental Earth Sciences, 2012, DOI:10.1007/s12665-01201718-8.
Zhang Shiqiang, Ye Baisheng, Liu Shiyin, et al. A modified monthly degree-day model for evaluating glacier runoff changes in China. Part Ⅰ: model development[J]. Hydrological Processes, 2012, 26(11): 1686-1696.
Zhang Shiqang, Gao Xin, Ye Baisheng, et al. A modified monthly degree-day model for evaluating glacier runoff changes in China. Part Ⅱ: application[J]. Hydrological Processes, 2012, 26(11): 1697-1706.
Gao Xin, Ye Baisheng, Zhang Shiqiang, et al. Glacier melt water change and impact on Tarim River during 1961-2000[J]. Science in China Series(D: Earth Science), 2010, 53(6): 880-891. [高鑫, 叶柏生, 张世强, 等. 1961-2006年塔里木河流域冰川融水变化及其对径流的影响[J]. 中国科学(D辑), 2010, 40(5): 654-665.]
Gao Hongkai, He Xiaobo, Ye Baisheng, et al. Modeling the runoff and glacier mass balance in a small watershed on the Central Tibetan Plateau, China, from 1955 to 2008[J]. Hydrological Processes, 2012, 26(11): 1593-1603.
Gao Xin, Zhang Shiqiang, Ye Baisheng, et al. Recent changes of glacier runoff in the Hexi Inland river basin[J]. Advances in Water Science, 2011, 22(3): 50-56. [高鑫, 张世强, 叶柏生, 等. 河西内陆河流域冰川融水近期变化[J]. 水科学进展, 2011, 22(3): 50-56.]
Ye Baisheng, Yang Daqing, Kane D L. Changes in Lena River streamflow hydrology: Human impacts versus natural variations[J]. Water Resource Research, 2003, 39(7): 1200. DOI:10.1029/2003wr001991.
Ye Baisheng, Yang Daqing, Zhang Zhongliang, et al. Variation of hydrological regime with permafrost cover Lena Basin in Siberia[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research-atmosphere, 2009, 114, D07102 DOI:10.1029/2009JD10537.
Ye Baisheng, Yang Daqing, Zhang Tingjun, et al. Hydrological process change with air temperature over the Lena Basin in Siberia[M]//Cold Region Hydrology in a Changing Climate. (Proceedings of Symposium H02 Held during IUGG2011. Melbourne), IAHS Publication, 2011, 346: 33-38.
Niu Li, Ye Baisheng, Li Jing, et al. Effect of permafrost degradation on hydrological processes in typical basins with various permafrost coverage in Western China[J]. Science in China(Series D: Earth Science), 2011, 54: 615-624, DOI: 10.1007/s11430-010-4073-1. [牛丽, 叶柏生, 李静, 等. 中国西北地区典型流域冻土退化对水文过程的影响[J]. 中国科学(D辑), 2011, 41: 85-92.]
Yang Daqing, Shi Yafeng, Kang Ersi. Research on analysis and correction of systematic errors in precipitation measurement in Ürümqi River Basin, Tianshan[M]//Formation and Estimation of Water Resources in Ürümqi river basin, Tianshan. Beijing: Science Press, 1992: 14-40.
Ye Baisheng, Yang Daqing, Ding Yongjian, et al. A bias-corrected precipitation climatology for China[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2007, 62(1): 3-13. [叶柏生, 杨大庆, 丁永建, 等. 中国降水观测误差分析及其修正[J]. 地理学报, 2007, 62(1): 3-13.]
Ye Baisheng, Yang Daqing, Ding Yongjian, et al. A bias-corrected precipitation climatology for China[J]. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2004, 5(6): 1147-1160.
Ding Yongjian, Yang Daqing, Ye Baisheng, et al. Effects of bias correction on precipitation trend over China[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2007, 112(D13), D13116, DOI: 10.1029/2006JD007938.
Ye Baisheng, Cheng Peng, Yang Daqing, et al. Effects of the bias-correction on changing tendency of precipitation over China[J]. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2008, 30(5): 717-725. [叶柏生, 成鹏, 杨大庆, 等. 降水观测误差修正对降水变化趋势的影响[J]. 冰川冻土, 2008, 30(5): 717-725.]
Yang Daqing, Kane D, Zhang Zhongping, et al. Bias corrections of long-term (1973-2004) daily precipitation data over the northern regions[J]. Geophysical Research Letters, 2005 32, L19501, DOI: 10.1029/2005GL024057.
Ye Baisheng, Yang Daqing, Ma Lijuan. Effect of precipitation bias correction on water budget calculation in Upper Yellow River, China[J]. Environmental Research Letters, 2012, 7, 025201. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/2/025201.
Ye Baisheng, Ding Yongjian, Yang Daqing, et al. Regional patterns of climate changes in Northwest China during the last 50 years viewed from annual discharge change[J]. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2006, 28(3): 307-311. [叶柏生, 丁永建, 杨大庆. 近50 a 西北地区年径流变化反映的区域气候差异[J]. 冰川冻土, 2006, 28(3): 307-311.]
Ding Yongjian, Ye Baisheng, Han Tianding, et al. Regional difference of annual precipitation and discharge variation over west China during the last 50 years[J]. Science in China (Series D: Earth Sciences), 2007, 50(6): 936-945. [丁永建, 叶柏生, 韩添丁, 等. 过去50年中国西部气候和径流变化的区域差异[J]. 中国科学(D辑: 地球科学), 2007, 37(2): 206-214.]
Yang Kun, Ye Baisheng, Zhou Degang, et al. Response of hydrological cycle to recent climate changes in the Tibetan Plateau[J]. Climatic Change, 2011, 109: 517-534, DOI 10.1007/s10584-011-0099-4.