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冰川冻土 2012, Vol. 34 Issue (3) :538-546    DOI:
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青海高原中、 东部多年冻土及寒区环境退化
罗栋梁, 金会军, 林琳, 何瑞霞, 杨思忠, 常晓丽
中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冻土工程国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
Degradation of Permafrost and Cold-Environments on the Interior and Eastern Qinghai Plateau
LUO Dong-liang, JIN Hui-jun, LIN Lin, HE Rui-xia, YANG Si-zhong, CHANG Xiao-li
State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
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摘要 近年来, 随着全球气候变暖和人类社会经济活动的增强, 处于季节冻土向片状连续多年冻土过渡区的青海高原中、 东部多年冻土退化显著. 巴颜喀拉山南坡清水河地区岛状冻土分布南界向北萎缩5 km; 清水河、 黄河沿、 星星海南岸、 黑河沿岸、 花石峡等岛状冻土和不连续多年冻土出现融化夹层和不衔接多年冻土, 有些地区冻土岛和深埋藏多年冻土消失, 多年冻土上限下降、 季节冻结深度变浅; 片状连续多年冻土地温升高、 冻土厚度减薄. 1991-2010年巴颜喀拉山南北坡不连续多年冻土分布下界分别上升90 m和100 m, 1995-2010年布青山南北坡不连续多年冻土分布下界分别上升80 m和50 m. 造成冻土退化的主要原因为气候变暖, 使得地表年均温度由负变正, 冻结期缩短, 融化期延长, 冻/融指数比缩小. 伴随着冻土退化, 高寒环境也显著退化, 地下水位下降, 植被覆盖度降低, 高寒沼泽湿地和河湖萎缩, 土地荒漠化和沙漠化造成了地表覆被条件改变.
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罗栋梁
金会军
林琳
何瑞霞
杨思忠
常晓丽
关键词青海高原中东部   多年冻土退化   多年冻土分布下界   气候变暖     
Abstract: The interior and eastern Qinghai Plateau is located on the transition zones of seasonally frozen ground to predominantly continuous permafrost. Remarkable climate warming has been seen since the 1980s in the plateau. With climate warming and increasing human activities, the permafrost has degraded significantly during the past twenty years. It is found that the lower limit of island permafrost has shifted 5 km northwards in Qingshuihe on the south slopes of the Bayan Har Mountains. The lower limit of permafrost rose 90 m in the south and 100 m in the north slopes of the Bayan Har Mountains, respectively, during the period of 1991-2010. The lower limit of permafrost rose 80 m in the south and 50 m in north slopes of the Buqing Mountains, respectively, during the period of 1995-2010. The changes of active layer depth and ground temperature were also significant. The active layer depth decreased with a rate of 3 cm·a-1, and the annual mean temperature at the bottom of the active layer increased with a rate of approximately 0.05 ℃·a in Madoi Station in 1980-2006. Climate warming could result in degradation of permafrost by turning minus temperature into positive temperature on the ground surface, shorten the frost period, extend the thawing period and decrease the freezing/thawing index. The deterioration of cold environments is also discussed in this paper.
KeywordsQinghai Plateau,   permafrost degradation,   lower limit of alpine permafrost,   climate warming     
收稿日期: 2011-10-27;
基金资助:国家自然科学基金创新群体项目"冻土与寒区工程"(41121061)资助
作者简介: 罗栋梁(1983-), 男, 湖南邵东人, 2007年毕业于辽宁工程技术大学, 现为中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所博士研究生, 主要从事冻土与气候变化方面的研究. E-mail: luodongliang@gmail.com
引用本文:   
罗栋梁, 金会军, 林琳等 .青海高原中、 东部多年冻土及寒区环境退化[J]  冰川冻土, 2012,V34(3): 538-546
LUO Dong-liang, JIN Hui-jun, LIN Lin etc .Degradation of Permafrost and Cold-Environments on the Interior and Eastern Qinghai Plateau[J]  JOURNAL OF GLACIOLOGY AND GEOCRYOLOGY, 2012,V34(3): 538-546
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